VATIS Update Food Processing . Apr-Jun 2015

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Food Processing Apr-Jun 2015

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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India to invest in 17 more food parks

The Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI), Government of India, has approved 17 food parks across the country over the next few months. The setting up of mega food parks, in the new sce-nario, is basically in accordance with the government revised guidelines under the Mega Food Parks Scheme effective from February 10, 2014. In this regard, according to a government official, earlier on November 7, 2014, MoFPI had called for Expressions of Interest (EoI) for empanelment of new project management consultants (PMCs) under the Mega Food Park Scheme.

In response to applications received, 17 new investors were evaluated out of the total 72 eligible EoIs based on their documents submitted and presentations made to the PMCs, specifically constituted for this purpose. Therefore, the setting up of 17 more mega food parks is under food processing ministry re-vised guidelines, which is in-principle approval to 25 projects in the third phase. The official refused to give further information on the initiative.

However, MoFPI has informed that under the Mega Food Park Scheme it was expected to have around 30-35 food processing units in each project on an average, with a collective investment of Rs 250 crore that would eventually lead to an annual turnover of Rs 450-500 crore. This will create direct or indirect employment of about 30,000 persons and the actual configuration of the project would depend and vary on the business plan for Mega Food Park.

Food safety tops China’s rural agenda

In a statement released by the Communist Party’s Central Committee and the State Council, the cen-tral government has prepared a key policy document to address food safety and modernise agriculture while rais-ing the income of growers, as it sought to address concerns about future food supply. It sets priorities for the 12 months ahead and has focused on rural matters for the past 12 years. This blueprint mapped out five goals – modernising agriculture, raising farmers’ income, improving infrastructure, deepening land reforms, and strengthening rule of law in rural matters.

According to preliminary data, harvests had increased for 11 consecutive years, but as economic growth slowed, it became necessary to reinforce agriculture’s position and raise farmers’ incomes. Agriculture accounted for 9.2 per cent of gross domestic product last year, down from 9.4 per cent in 2013. But the industry suffered from overdevelopment, which had contributed to environmental problems, so secur-ing supply and ensuring safety were great challenges. It said the government would strengthen the supervi-sion system at the county and village level. It also encouraged wholesale enterprises to set up an integrated tracking system so the origins of products could be traced.

On boosting technology within the sector, the government would do more to study genetically modified (GM) food and the safety concerns surrounding it. The government would narrow the gap between domestic and global food prices by using modern methods to help gauge costs and productivity. It would also review a pilot scheme to allow the price of cotton and soybean to fluctuate and subsidise farmers when their incomes fell too low.

Sri Lanka’s processed food exports rise by 14%

At the launch ceremony of the Pro Food-Pro Pack & Agbiz 2015 in Colombo, the Sri Lankan Minis-ter of Industries and Commerce Rishad Bathiudeen has revealed that the country’s processed food industry which experienced a decline in 2013 has recovered in last year surging 14 percent. In 2014, Sri Lanka’s exports of food, feed, beverages and tobacco increased 14 percent to US$ 317 million from 2013’s US$ 278 million. The Minister stated that the processed food industry, despite lower export revenues, is the largest of industries in Sri Lanka in terms of input and output values by industry as well as value addition and is standing even above the apparel sector.

“The about 850 Lankan establishments with more than 25 workers each are employing 100,000 per-sons and are annually producing about US$ 4 billion of processed food in Sri Lanka increasing their share in the exports. The packaging industry is also at the center of most of Sri Lanka’s exports as well as local and international marketing and branding of Lankan products,” said Bathiudeen. Accord-ing to the Export Development Board, 200 Lankan companies are directly involved in packaging industry and Sri Lanka’s direct packaging exports stood at US$ 74 million in 2013.

The main sub sector is corrugated packaging for transports. About 20 companies supply to the other sub sector, flexible packaging which includes plastic packaging. As Sri Lanka’s only agriculture, food and beverage and packaging event, it attracts all stakeholders from the retail and wholesale food/beverage service sectors generating new connections and new business for everyone involved.

India’s food processing sector attracted FDI

In an official government statement, the Food Processing Minister Harsimrat Kaur Badal said that the food processing sector attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) of $421.51 million during April-January period of 2014-15 Food Processing is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy and the sector is growing at 8.4 per cent. She said the country has the potential to become a global leader in food processing sector. Badal in-formed that 100 per cent FDI is permissible in food processing sector through automatic route except for items reserved for Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs).

“During (Apr-Jan) 2014-15, the sector has attracted USD 421.51 million FDI in the country,” she added. Stating the high level of wastages in perishables is a challenge, Badal said the government is making efforts to promote food processing industry to reduce wastage of farm produce and ensure higher returns to the farmers. Recently, Ministry has sanctioned 17 new mega food parks to attract investment in the sector and will sanction about 30 more new Cold Chain projects. The minister said that there is an im-mense potential in food processing sector to generate employment in the country.

China adds potatoes as a food staple

In a statement the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) has said that the potato will soon be China’s latest staple diet after rice, wheat and corn and 50 per cent of annual production of potatoes will be consumed as a staple food by 2020 to improve the food security in the world’s most populous nation. China will turn potatoes into noodles, steamed bread and other staple food products, converting pota-toes to a series of manufactured food items, leading to a healthier diet. “The addition of potatoes as another staple food was consistent with the government’s policy of adjusting the agriculture structure to achieve sustainable development,” said Yu Xinrong, deputy director of the MOA.

The MOA also vowed to make a “distinct” increase in potato production in the next few years. Popularising the consumption of potatoes would not compromise the existing cultivated land for wheat, rice and corn. Experts suggested that techniques of processing potatoes will also be improved. They also called for a campaign to promote the consumption of potatoes. Many potato-lovers supported the policy, while oth-ers doubted if the policy was a result of inadequate production of traditional staple food in China.

China is under pressure with a huge population but limited farmland, which makes potatoes a perfect sup-plement to the present staple food system of China. “As the vegetable is easy to grow even in barren lands, it would also guarantee food supply. The potato is of higher nutritional value compared with rice and wheat flour, which lose considerable dietary fiber and nutrients during processing,” said Liu Lan, at the China Dietitian Association. The decision would encourage the increased planting of potatoes and bring some improvements to the food processing industry, but this would require greater government support.

Global tea promo gets cabinet nod in Sri Lanka

In an official statement the Sri Lanka Tea Board (SLTB) has announced that the government of Sri Lanka has approved the long awaited global promotional campaign aimed at boosting the tea industry. “The global promotional campaign set to be carried out in 25 identified markets would cost a total of US$9 million (Rs.3.8 billion), Ms. Premila Srikantha at SLTB. She noted that the cabinet approval has been obtained for the global campaign and that they were awaiting the official letter of award to the agency from the ministry. The creative work related campaign has been assigned to Phoenix Ogilvy based on a pre-vious selection while Grey First would be initiating the public promotions campaign.

The two advertising and PR companies were selected following submissions made to the Technical Evalua-tion Committee (TEC) and were appointed one year ago. In addition, the brand promotion trade fair subsidy and the joint promotion would cost the SLTB Rs.1 billion. The Tea Board has also launched the brand pro-motion for exporters. Sri Lankan brands with 100 per cent local input would be supported in the brand pro-motion in their advertising campaign. Though the two advertising and PR agencies were shortlisted they were not awarded the tender due to formality procedures and other approvals that were awaited. The indus-try was looking forward to a “unified global campaign” to take Ceylon Tea into the global mar-ket.

Processed food exports to rise in Malaysia

Malaysia’s processed food exports are expected to grow this year particularly in cocoa and co-coa preparation segment. Malaysia’s total exports of processed food increased 16.3 per cent to RM16.56 billion in 2014 as compared with RM14.24 billion recorded previously. Exports of edible products and preparation segment grew to RM5.47 billion from RM4.09 billion, followed by cocoa and cocoa prepara-tion segment, which improved to RM3.84 billion from RM3.29 billion achieved in 2013.

Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (Matrade) chief executive officer, Datuk Dr Wong Lai Sum, said the demand for food ingredients such as cocoa butter and chocolate, which are used in the con-fectionery industry, was very high. “However, it (processed food export) depends on whether it (de-mand for food ingredients) would be sustained in the future,” she said, adding that the processed food exports had recorded double-digit growth in the last three years and the trend was expected to continue.

Malaysia exports raw ingredients as well as halal food ingredients, functional food and healthy food. On an-other development, the national trade promotion agency aimed to organise 30 specialised marketing mis-sions this year, with the participation of about 15 companies per mission depending on the market size. Meanwhile, Perfect Food Manufacturing, Malaysia, planned to expand its footprint to Latin America, Europe including Russia, and the African region after having strengthened its presence in 70 countries. Via its signa-ture biscuit brand, Julie’s, Perfect Food Manufacturing has targeted to increase its revenue this year to RM350 million from RM280 million recorded last year.

Cambodia to introduce food-safety law

Cambodia is planning to introduce a food-safety law this year to adopt a set of national food safety standards and ensure greater coordination across ministries. “The law was being drafted and will apply to all kinds of food, including street food,” said Aing Hoksrun at the Department of Drugs and Food. The food and bever-age industry is currently regulated by an inter-ministerial announcement, which sees six different ministries over-looking different aspects of food safety, Hoksun said.

According to Didier Fontenille, director at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Cambodia, a bio-medical re-search lab, there are currently 452 food safety standards being passed around different ministries, but only 12 have been officially published so far. In 2009, the Pasteur Institute conducted tests on raw chicken meat available in Phnom Penh’s chicken market and found that 46 per cent of the samples showed traces of salmonella. However, four years later, the rate of salmonella had dropped, possibly due to better educa-tion among vendors.

Pakistan implement mega agriculture project

Chief Minister of Sindh (Pakistan) Syed Qaim Ali Shah has said that his government has conceived mega development projects in collaboration with World Bank to modernize agriculture sector, improve its productivity and access to market. He said that Sindh Agriculture Growth Project (SAGP) has been launched with its total estimated cost of Rs 8867.463 million. Similarly another project of Sindh Irrigated Agricultural Productivity Enhancement Project (SIAPEP) has also been prepared with its estimated cost of Rs 30 billion which is likely to be launched within months not only to bring about green revolution but also increase pro-ductivity and farm income for better socio-economic condition of farmers.

He said that agriculture and live stock were the only sectors upon which 70 to 80% population of the province depended for its livelihood, hence SAGP was conceived to boost up productivity and provide market access to small and medium producers of onion, chilies, dates and rice crops and avoid post har-vest loss through efficient management and modern technology. In addition to that important component of live stock has also been included in this project to increase dairy production and its marketing to bene-fit the breeders and also rehabilitate flood/rain effected infrastructure of live stock department. Mr. Shah said that apart from this the Sindh Government has been implementing many other projects for conservation of water for benefiting the growers.


ISO 22000 revised on food safety management

A meeting of the ISO working group (ISO/TC 34/SC 17/WG 8) in charge of the revision, hosted by the National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI), in which ISO member for the country, and the group met on 23-25 February 2015 in Dublin and discussed the necessary improvements to the standard. A consultation held in 2014 among users of the standard brought up gaps in the current version. Certain terms were found to be potentially confusing: unnecessary repetition was revealed and some concepts needed clarifying.

Moreover, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were not sufficiently integrated and the understand-ing of risk evaluation still needed to be improved. These various points raised by users contributed to the revision process. ISO 22000 will have the same format as other management systems standards (MSSs), which will now follow an identical structure with common texts, terms and definitions. This will make life eas-ier for companies wanting to be certified to several MSSs, such as ISO 9001 and ISO 22000. The coordi-nated format will ensure coherence between the standards, simplify their integrated use and facilitate their reading and understanding by users.

While food industry experts may be especially involved in this revision, other users of the standard will be specifically targeted as necessary. These include SMEs, feed producers, pet food industry players, regulators looking for a model by which to develop regulatory requirements with a food safety manage-ment approach, even manufacturers who don’t directly “manage food” but whose activities fall within the scope of the standard, e.g. water. Many companies and organizations do not use ISO 22000 on its own, but in conjunction with quality management standard ISO 9001, hence the desire to align the two standards and ensure their coherence.

Philippines inks rules on food safety law

The Philippines government has signed the landmark Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of the Food Safety Act of 2013 that aims to ensure food safety all the way from the farm to the dinner ta-ble. Under this Act, a Food Safety Regulation Coordination Board shall be chaired by the secretary of the Department of Health and co-chaired by the secretary of the Department of Agriculture.

“The IRR aims to protect the consumer from food-borne and water- borne illnesses and unsani-tary, unwholesome, misbranded or adulterated foods; enhance industry and consumer confidence in the food regulatory system; and achieve economic growth and development by promoting fair trade practices and sound regulatory foundation for domestic and international trade,” Acting Health Secretary Janette Garin explained.

Implementation of the IRR will give the assurance that the food that the consumer buys will not cause illness or death, which one is getting what is promised by the label, and, if anything goes wrong after consuming the product, one would know who is responsible.

China toughens food safety laws

In the wake of several high-profile food safety scandals, China’s lawmakers have adopted tougher amendments to bolster the country’s existing food safety law. The changes, effective Oct. 1, 2015, will add 50 new articles, or about half again what the previous law contained. Many of the new amendments address infant formula regulations and the online food market, which has seen rising popularity in China. The changes also set tougher penalties for violations and are the first changes to the law since it was originally adopted in 2009.

The action by the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress reflects a goal set by the country’s leaders at the 18th Communist Party of China Central Committee in No-vember 2013. Recent food safety scandals in China include using recycled “gutter oil” in restaurants, the fraudulent labeling of fox and rat meat as beef and pork, selling pork from diseased pigs, injecting clenbuterol into pork, and contaminating milk with melamine.

There are still concerns that, given the fragmented nature of the food production, processing and distri-bution system in China, food safety authorities there won’t have enough staff and other re-sources to enforce the new law. Some recent audits of food facilities in China reportedly revealed that nearly half don’t have sufficient training or equipment to ensure that adequate safety standards are met.


Multi-Treenut food allergen test

Neogen, the United States, has developed a rapid test that can simultaneously detect the presence of six tree nuts in a single test in just 10 minutes after extraction. Neogen’s new Reveal® for Multi-Treenut detects 5-10 parts per million (ppm) of almond, hazelnut, pecan, walnut, cashew and pistachio resi-dues on environmental surfaces, as well as in rinses. The new test is simple to use and provides quick, accu-rate results, aiding food manufacturers in cleaning validations or verification of existing procedures to prevent cross-contamination of tree nuts within their manufacturing facilities.

“Our new Reveal test for multiple tree nuts is a result of requests from our customers to develop a single test to detect multiple tree nuts at once. Our customers have told us that it’s common in pro-duction environments for a commingling of multiple tree nuts to occur, and they would prefer not to test for each separately. The new single test represents an opportunity for many to simplify their testing, while re-ceiving faster test results,” said Ed Bradley, at Neogen.

Reveal for Multi-Treenut is in an extremely easy lateral flow format — just dip the test’s device in an extracted sample, and wait 10 minutes. If two lines develop, the test is positive for one or more of the six tree nuts. If only one line develops, the test is negative. In addition to this new test for multiple tree nuts, Neo-gen’s industry-leading line of food allergen test kits includes rapid quantitative and screening tests for milk, gluten, egg, soy, sesame, crustacea, mustard, peanut, almond, walnut and hazelnut. Neogen is the recognized leader in development and marketing of diagnostic tests to detect contamination with allergens. Contact: Jennifer Baker, Neogen Corporation, USA. Tel: +1-517-372-9200.

A new test agent for detecting bacteria

Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Japan, in collaboration with the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Japan, has succeeded in the development of a new “fluorescent immunochromatographic test agent” applying the fluorescent silica nanoparticle (Quartz Dot) technology also developed by Furu-kawa Electric for Campylobacter, a bacteria that can cause bacterial food poisoning. With the development of this agent, the time required to test for food poisoning bacteria at production and distribution worksites can be greatly reduced, and this achievement will be a valuable contribution to the safe and secure provision of fresh food.

This newly-developed fluorescent immunochromatographic test agent can drastically reduce the Campylo-bacter testing time of several days required by the bacterial cultivation method. Furthermore, since its detec-tion sensitivity is over 50 times higher than that of colored immunochromatographic test agents that use gold nanoparticles, there are high expectations for its future application in Campylobacter testing of food and meat products in general.

The developed product takes the same device form as an ordinary immunochromatography testing kit, consisting of Quartz Dot and a test strip. To perform a test, a subject liquid (enrichment culture fluid, etc.) and Quartz Dot are mixed, the mixed liquid is delivered by drops at the edge of the test strip, and the fluorescent emission generated on the test strip is then measured using a compact, lightweight fluo-rescence measuring instrument to provide a quantitative judgment on the detection results. In the de-velopment of this product, the overall system was optimized through the use of the fluorescent immuno-chromatographic reader DiaScanα, developed by Otsuka Electronics Co., Ltd.

Natural antimicrobials to reduce contamination

A team of researchers at Wayne State University (Wayne State), the United States, have been exploring natural, safe and alternative antimicrobials to reduce bacterial contamination. Plant essential oils such as those from thyme, oregano and clove are known to have a strong antimicrobial effect, but currently their use in food protection is limited due to their low solubility in water. The team, led by Dr. Yifan Zhang, explored ways to formulate oil nanoemulsions to increase the solubility and stability of essential oils and, conse-quently, enhance their antimicrobial activity.

“Much of the research on the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils has been conducted using prod-ucts made by mixing immiscible oils in water or phosphate buffered saline. However, because of the hydro-phobic nature of essential oils, organic compounds from produce may interfere with reducing the sanitising effect or duration of the effectiveness of these essential oils. Our team set out to find a new approach to in-hibit these bacteria with the use of oregano oil, one of the most effective plant essential oils with antimicro-bial effect,” said Zhang.

Zhang approached Dr. Sandro da Rocha, associate professor at Wayne State, to explore options. The team initially considered the use of solid polymeric nanoparticles for the delivery of the oil, but da Rocha sug-gested the use of nanoemulsions. “My team felt the use of nanoemulsions would improve the rate of release compared to other nanoformulations and the ability of the food-grade surfactant to wet the surface of the produce,” said da Rocha. The team added that while there is still work to be done, their study suggests promise for the use of essential oil nanoemulsions as a natural alternative to chemicals for safety controls in produce. The study has been published in the issue of Food Microbiology.

New sensor to detect spoiled meat

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the United States, have devised an inexpensive, portable sensor that can detect gases emitted by rotting meat, allowing consumers to determine whether the meat in their grocery store or refrigerator is safe to eat. The sensor, which con-sists of chemically modified carbon nanotubes, could be deployed in “smart packaging” that would offer much more accurate safety information than the expiration date on the package. It could also cut down on food waste. People are constantly throwing things out that probably aren’t bad, said Timothy Swager, at MIT.

The sensor is similar to other carbon nanotube devices that Swager’s lab has developed in recent years, including one that detects the ripeness of fruit. All of these devices work on the same principle: Car-bon nanotubes can be chemically modified so that their ability to carry an electric current changes in the presence of a particular gas. In this case, the researchers modified the carbon nanotubes with metal-containing compounds called metalloporphyrins, which contain a central metal atom bound to several nitro-gen-containing rings. Hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood, is a metalloporphyrin with iron as the central atom.

For this sensor, the researchers used a metalloporphyrin with cobalt at its center. Metalloporphyrins are very good at binding to nitrogen-containing compounds called amines. Of particular interest to the re-searchers were the so-called biogenic amines, such as putrescine and cadaverine, which are produced by decaying meat. When the cobalt-containing porphyrin binds to any of these amines, it increases the elec-trical resistance of the carbon nanotube, which can be easily measured. The new device also requires very little power and could be incorporated into a wireless platform that allows a regular smartphone to read output from carbon nanotube sensors such as this one. The researchers have filed for a patent on the technology and hope to license it for commercial development.

DNA chip technology to test food borne pathogens

Toshiba Ltd, Japan, and Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Japan, have collaborated in the de-velopment of a rapid and efficient automatic abbreviated DNA detection technology that can test for 14 major types of food borne pathogens. The so called ‘DNA chip card’ employs electrochemical DNA chips and overcomes the complicated procedures associated with genetic testing of conventional methods. The ‘DNA chip card’ is expected to find applications in hygiene management in food manufac-ture, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

The so-called automatic abbreviated DNA detection technology ‘DNA chip card’ was devel-oped by Toshiba Ltd and in a collaboration with Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, used to simultane-ously detect 14 different types of food-borne pathogens in less than 90 minutes.

Notably, such tests would usually take 4-5 days using conventional methods based on pathogen cultivation. Furthermore, in contrast to conventional DNA protocols that require high levels of skill and expertise, the ‘DNA chip card’ only requires the operator to inject nucleic acid, thereby making the procedure easier to use and without specialized operating skills.


Scientists develop a new way to cook rice

Scientists from College of Chemical Sciences, Sri Lanka, have developed a new, simple way to cook rice that could cut the number of calories absorbed by the body by more than half, potentially reducing obesity rates, which is especially important in countries where the food is a staple. The number of people who are overweight or obese is steadily increasing. As lifestyles change and people become more sedentary, their diets also change. Serving sizes grow, and more food options be-come available. In addition to consuming more fats and sugars, people may choose to fill up on starchy carbohydrates like rice, which has about 240 calories per cup.

“Because obesity is a growing health problem, especially in many developing countries, we wanted to find food-based solutions. We discovered that increasing rice resistant starch (RS) concentrations was a novel way to approach the problem” said Sudhair A. James at the College of Chemical Sciences. Starch is a component of rice, and it has both types. Unlike di-gestible types of starch, RS is not broken down in the small intestine, where carbohydrates normally are metabolized into glucose and other simple sugars and absorbed into the bloodstream. Thus, the re-searchers reasoned that if they could transform digestible starch into RS, then that could lower the number of usable calories of the rice.

The team experimented with 38 kinds of rice from Sri Lanka, developing a new way of cooking rice that increased the RS content. In this method, they added a teaspoon of coconut oil to boiling water. Then, they added a half a cup of rice. They simmered this for 40 minutes, but one could boil it for 20-25 min-utes instead, the researchers note. Then, they refrigerated it for 12 hours. This procedure increased the RS by 10 times for traditional, non-fortified rice. The next step will be to complete studies with human subjects to learn which varieties of rice might be best suited to the calorie-reduction process. The team also will check out whether other oils besides coconut have this effect.

New technology to fight coconut oil adulteration

KLF, India, has introduced a new blending technology for their latest product ‘Cocodaily’, to fight adulteration of coconut oil. “As a leader of the cooking oil indus-try, KLF took it as their responsibility to develop an affordable yet high quality substitute. ‘KLF Co-codaily’, contains 80 per cent sunflower oil and 20 per cent coconut oil,” said Paul Francis, at KLF. Developed with detailed research and testing, Cocodaily is the result of KLF’s close asso-ciation with CFTRI (Central Food Technological Research Institute), India, and CDBI (Coconut Develop-ment Board of India).

KLF Cocodaily uses an advanced blending technology to mix sunflower oil and coconut oil in an ideal way to harness the best properties of both the oils. Cocodaily maintains a lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids, desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases prevalent in our society. Another important property of the product is its lower solidification temperature (13O) which keeps it in liquid state even at moderately cold temperatures. KLF Cocodaily, which uses the new tech-nology, is expected to replace the dubiously branded and unbranded blended oils that appear in the market as cheaper substitutes when coconut oil prices go up. This product is exclusively blended to hit the Kerala markets and comes with Agmark Certification.

Millions of liters of juice from one grapefruit

The Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (ACIB) has found a new method that allows produc-tion of expensive grapefruit aroma Nootkatone biotechnologically from cheap sugar using a ‘turbo-yeast.’ ACIB has used the positive aspects of synthetic biology for the ecofriendly production of a natural compound. ACIB researchers Tamara Wriessnegger and Harald Pichler took it as a challenge to produce Nootkatone in large quantities. The substance is expensive and can be found only in minute quantities in grapefruits. At the same time the need is great, because Nootkatone is used as a high quality, natural flavoring substance in millions of liters of soft and lifestyle drinks, as a bio-pharmaceutical component or as a natural insect repellent.

“We have installed new genetic information in the yeast Pichia pastoris, so that our cells are able to produce Nootkatone from sugar,” said Tamara Wriessnegger at ACIB. The genome of the yeast cells has been extended with four foreign genes derived from the cress Arabidopsis thaliana, the Egyptian henbane Hyoscyamus muticus, the Nootka cypressXanthocyparis nootkatensis and from baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ultimately, the aroma found in one grapefruit leads to millions of liters of tasty juice. With the help of the new genes the yeast is capable to synthesize the high-prized, natural flavor (more than 4000 euros/kilo) in a cheap way and in useful quantities from sugar (one euro/kilo).

Nootkatone is an important substance for the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. As an in-secticide it is effective against ticks, mosquitoes or bedbugs. In the medical field, the substance has shown activity against cancer cell lines. In cosmetics, people appreciate the good smell, in soft drinks a fine, subtle taste. Because the natural sources cannot meet the demands, the new method replaces chemical synthesis, an energy-consuming and anything but environmentally friendly process. The com-mon biotech variant via Valencene and a chemical synthesis step is less ecofriendly, more difficult and expensive.

Patent for cocoa-based allergy treatment

The Nestle Corporation, Switzerland, has filed an international patent for cocoa polyphenols as a treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis. The patent is a proposed dietary solution researched by Nes-tle’s research subsidiary Nestec. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition of the esophagus believed to be caused by allergies. The condition is characterized by the existence of eosi-nophils (a type of white blood cell) in the esophageal mucosa, where they are not normally found. It is a relatively rare condition that is becoming more common and of concern to doctors globally.

Approval of patent could lead to multiple uses for cocoa-derived solution. The patent filed by Nestec includes using cocoa polyphenols with procyanidin flavonoid. The patent cites research on mice for proof of possible efficacy. The intention is to use the cocoa-derived solution as a food additive, pharma-cological supplement and other possibilities. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals would be required and the product would have to be tested and well-proven before entering the market with any claims as a remedy. One proposed remedy would be as a treatment in liquid form to be sprayed into the throat of affected patients.

Researchers found novel way of using leftover shells

Flinders University, Australia, and the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) have found innovative ways of using leftover shells and parts from the processing of lobsters.

The two institutes are working with Adelaide-based lobster exporter Ferguson Australia to help the com-pany generate new products from lobster “offcuts”, and to develop a cost-effective manu-facturing process to improve Ferguson’s annual turnover and environmental stewardship. Proto-types developed so far at Flinders University’s Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development in-clude lobster essence oil, protein powder and chitin; derived 100 per cent from lobsters.

“The lobster oil and protein powder could be used as functional ingredients in a range of food-stuffs, from stock bases to crackers, while the chitin, chitosan and its derivatives could have a wide range of applications, from food and cosmetics to biomedicines, agriculture and the environment. We have extracted a variety of items, including protein hydrolysates, chitin, chitosan and oil, from food-grade lobster parts that would usually be thrown away. The oil has quite a strong smell so it could be used as a lobster flavour in chips and crackers, and it is also rich in astaxanthin which is a powerful antioxidant,” said Trung Nguyen at Flinders.

Nguyen said the extraction of lobster compounds uses cutting-edge advanced manufacturing processes such as supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction and microwave-assisted extraction, which produces a product that is of high purity while also being cost effective and environmentally sus-tainable. The products, once refined, will be marketed to potential partners in the food industry. Re-searchers has shown that they can create these products in very large quantities using sustainable tech-nologies, ultimately increasing the competitiveness of South Australian foods in the national and interna-tional marketplace.


Food additive that increase shelf-life of leafy greens

The Hebrew University Technology Transfer Company Yissum, Israel, has introduced a new invention devel-oped by Dr. Rivka Elbaum, from the Faculty of Agriculture, which utilizes an approved food additive that may have beneficial effects on human health. The technology was presented at Agritech Israel 2015, the 19th International Agricultural Exhibition and Conference, held in Israel on April 28-30, 2015. The solution is introduced into the plant tissue by dipping the cut leaves into the solution, and thus delaying senescence.

In proof of concept experiments, the invention was shown to delay senescence and chlorophyll loss in Lettuce leaves as well as in Arabidopsis, a small flowering plant related to cabbage and mustard. “The novel method invented by Dr. Elbaum, is a simple, low-cost solution for delaying senescence in leafy greens, thereby increasing their shelf-life. The method, which has been tested on lettuce could considerably increase the profitability of leafy greens, which comprise a large fraction of the fresh vegetable market,” said Yaacov Michlin, CEO of Yissum.

New technology boosts shelf-life of food

Researchers from University of San Diego (USD), the United States, has developed a new technology that extends the shelf-life of foods for export by 30 percent through the use of packaging that includes organic com-ponents. “We have incorporated into the packages active nano-compounds obtained from traditional products such as Chilean wineberry or maqui (Aristotelia chilensis), murtilla (Ugni molinae) and calafate (Ber-beris congestiflora,) that have a positive and beneficial effect on contents,” said Maria Jose Galotto, at USD.

The technology draws on the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and ethylene-absorbing qualities of the compo-nents. Figures from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization show that a third of food products for human consumption goes to waste due to damage and degradation during the harvest or while in storage or transit. The enhanced packaging is up to 5 percent more expensive than conventional containers, but “the increased cost is compensated by a reduction in product losses to degradation,” Galotto said.

This type of technology is already being applied in other countries, such as Spain, the Chilean innovation comes from the range of beneficial properties in indigenous products that can be applied to packaging. So far, the nanotechnology has been applied to the packaging of grapes, kiwi, avocado, vegetables and salmon, and soon it will be used to wrap bread and cheese. The packages are also environmentally friendly, as they use biodegradable polymers.

An innovative technology for food industry

Aseptia, the United States, has introduced an innovative preservation technology for the growing food market, which preserves food’s flavor, nutrients, aroma at extended shelf-life. “Our technology is a game-changer in food preservation. With our proprietary AseptiWave process, food processors are now able to success-fully preserve food for 12 months or more without preservatives and without jeopardizing the final product pur-chased by the consumer. No refrigeration, no canning, just a clean and quick means of creating a beautifully edible, shelf-stable, packaged product.” said David Clark at Aseptia. According to Clark, Aseptia’s modern-ized preservation technology is already benefitting several well-known brand labels.

But as 2015 marches toward its second quarter, company leadership readies to move its ground-breaking work from the subsidiary facility of Wright Foods, the United States, to interested worldwide companies pre-pared for this aseptic advancement. Aseptia’s breakthrough methods were developed at North Caro-lina State University, the United States, under a team of internationally recognized pioneers in the food in-dustry. The patented technology – which uses advanced, volumetric heating – and aseptic process preserves the food’s aroma, natural flavor and nutritional goodness in addition to its ex-panded shelf-life. Contact: Lyerly Agency, Melinda Skutnick, USA. Tel: +1-704-525-3937, E-mail:


Researchers simplify beverage quality analysis

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Germany, in collabora-tion with GEN-IAL, Germany, have developed a polymer powder that significantly simplifies quality con-trol tests and shortens the time that they require. With a new polymer powder, monitoring the production process for quality will be able to be faster and simpler in the future. Manufacturers can also test drinks such as milk, juice, cola and red wine with the quick check. Until recently, beer has been filtered in spe-cial equipment, where the bacteria remain on a membrane and is cultivated in a special culture medium before they can be examined microscopically.

The new polymer powder from the IAP replaces this process: The powder is added to the liquid sample. The powder’s functionalized surface binds the bacteria efficiently. The pathogens adhere to the 100 to 200 micron powder particles. These can be easily removed along with the microbes in a specially developed system and analysed directly using various microbiological methods. The time-consuming enrichment in a nutrient medium is no longer necessary. With the new method, food experts can investigate beer and other beverages for infection by pathogens.

Breweries have also only been able to examine small sample volumes of up to one liter via membrane filtration. With the polymer powder, tests with 30 liters or more are possible. Through the use of the powder, food safety has been increased, since it is more likely to find trace contaminants in large vol-umes of the beverages.

Coconut water and coconut milk blends released

Bulk tropical fruit juices, purees and concentrates supplier iTi Tropicals Inc., the United States, has an-nounced the availability of six custom coconut water and coconut milk prototype blends specifically designed to stimulate research and development and to initiate a creative dialog. The company’s goal is to en-courage beverage manufacturers to experiment with these special ingredients, discover new formulations and functions, and collaborate with iTi product development scientists for insights and assistance. The proto-types include an organic coconut water and 100 percent juice beverage, two coconut milk beverages, a light culinary coconut milk, an apple-coconut water blend, and an orange-coconut water blend. All prototypes are packaged in shelf-stable 330-ml Tetra Prisma boxes.

The company also plans to release new prototypes in May. These prototypes will feature coconut water diluted to either 3 or 4 degrees brix and with 1 percent sugar added; coconut water and passion fruit blend with 100 percent juice content; coconut water and acerola blend with 100 percent juice content; coconut water, spinach, mango and blueberries with 100 percent juice content; coconut water, red beet, passion fruit and carrots with 100 percent juice content; toasted coconut water with 100 percent juice content; cranberry and coconut water with 100 percent juice content; and grape-coconut water with 100 percent juice content. Contact: iTi Tropicals Inc., 30 Gordon Ave., Lawrenceville, N.J., USA. Tel: +1-609-987-0550.

Patent filed to tackle aftertaste in calcium fortified juice

In a US patent filing, Tropicana, the United States, said that it had addressed taste impact by combining calcium lactate and hydroxyapatite. This blend, it said, resulted in a ‘surprisingly good taste,’ it wrote in its patent filing. The method enables calcium fortification in a number of juices, including citrus juices and non-citrus fruit and vegetable juices such as apple, pear, grape, pineapple, cranberry, pomegranate, and tomato.

Calcium fortification can be achieved by adding calcium citrate malate. However, Tropicana said this adds operational complexity and costs. For example, calcium citrate malate can precipitate during pasteurization, resulting in equipment scaling and therefore increasing processing costs. Yet other methods of fortification may sacrifice taste, it added.

Calcium fortified beverages that do not require added citric acid or a citrate compound, were also desirable. In addition to the calcium, the beverage could also be supplemented with nutraceuticals, such as magnesium and selenium. Suitable vitamin nutraceuticals include vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, C, and E. Other suitable nutraceuticals include omega-3 fatty acids, glucosamine and fiber. Other suitable nutraceuticals includes amino sugars such as glucosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine.


Packaging that extends shelf-life of food

Researchers at the A*STAR‘s Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Sin-gapore, have developed an active packaging which protects perishables with a layered plastic that not only keeps out oxygen and moisture, but also extends the shelf-life of foods by absorbing oxygen that may be present in packaging. The packaging could also be customised for different foods or products, and be cou-pled with other IMRE innovations to produce “smart” packaging. For instance, IMRE has de-veloped a sensor strip that detects minute chemical concentrations associated with the freshness of meat, fish or poultry to give a more accurate indication of food spoilage and expiration.

The institute has signed an agreement with key industry partners – Mitsui Chemicals Asia Pacific, Japan, Toyo Ink SC Holdings, Japan, Dai Nippon Printing, Japan, Piaget Chemicals & Manufacturing, Singa-pore, and Dou Yee Enterprises, Singapore – to develop and test its new packaging material. “Improvements to mundane materials like the plastic wrapping in your local supermarket are often taken for granted but technology proves that such innovations could significantly change the world we live in. Our new material will help reduce food wastage considerably, and allow consumers to more accurately iden-tify when food actually spoils,” said Professor Andy Hor, at IMRE.

New shrink films extend food’s shelf-life

DuPont, the United States, and Kuhne Anlagenbau, Germany, have improved the performance of their “TripleBubble” shrink films for food applications. The companies say, the new grades have bet-ter shrink and lidding structures, allowing cost- and material-savings. The new shrink film and bag structures, which are based on using DuPont’s “Surlyn” thermoplastic ionomer, provide advan-tages including advanced meat adhesion and good puncture resistance, extending shelf-life and minimising food waste caused by packaging failure during transportation. In particular, the use of Surlyn for food contact layers in shrink bag applications has resulted in improved transparency, meat adhesion and colour as well as reduced drip and odour development.

TripleBubble shrink films typically consist of a PET or PA based outer layer, a structural layer based on Sur-lyn and a PE based seal layer, and can be enhanced with an EVOH or PVDC based barrier structure. Surlyn provides the high shrink, softness and perforation resistance. A new development is the combination of con-ventional shrink film technology using Surlyn as shrink layer with an advanced sealing technology, where Surlyn is used also as sealant. The new developments support the trend towards the use of such shrink films to produce shrink bags for supermarket consumer packaging of meat. The films are already used widely to produce bags for transporting meat on the bone from the slaughterhouse to retailers or restaurants.

Shrink bags for consumer packaging applications weigh considerably less than the tray-and-lid solutions, as well as helping to improve the meat’s colour and texture. Another area of development is the down-gauging of strong coextruded and bi-oriented high performance films with controlled thermal stability for lid-ding applications. Tests from new lidding film solutions using DuPont’s “Appeel” resins as the sealing layer and “Bynel” adhesive resins as the tie layer indicate that raw materials savings of up to 50% can be achieved compared with conventional laminate structures, depending on the application, the companies say.

Latest developments in compostable food packaging

The BIOMAT Research group from the University of the Basque Country, Spain, has developed a new biodegradable/compostable container for both liquid and solid oily products; agro-industrial by-products have been used and this will contribute towards the sustainable consumption of raw materials and the up-grading of by-products. The container is transparent and, at the same time, provides an excellent barrier for keeping out ultraviolet light and gases like oxygen. Multilayer laminates are generally used as a barrier against gases, yet the product developed has a single layer, which cuts its cost considerably. Furthermore, it can be thermally sealed and is printable.

Tetra Pak, the United States, has launched a new Tetra Rex® carton made entirely from plant-based, re-newable packaging materials. This new carton will be the first in the market to have bio-based low-density polyethylene films and bio-based high-density polyethylene caps, both derived from sugarcane, in addition to Forest Stewardship Council-certified paperboard. Developed in partnership with Braskem, Brazil, the new Tetra Rex package has become commercially available in early 2015. Tetra Pak customers using the standard 1-L Tetra Rex with TwistCap OSO 34 can easily transfer to the new version without the need for any additional in-vestment.

New Frontier Foods, the United States, had developed a line of flavoured snack chips made from seaweed, and chose to use a flexible pouch package for its chips made from UK-based Innovia Films’ Nature-Flex, bio-based packaging. NatureFlex is a range of speciality packaging films developed by Innovia Films to offer packaging material options that give strong environmental support towards increasing consumer de-mand for more ‘environmentally friendly packaging. The films offer good gas barrier properties and the coatings can be tailored to provide varying degrees of moisture barrier, depending on the needs of the wrapped product.

Functional polymer design for safe food packaging

Evonik Industries, Germany, has developed two new members of its Dynapol family of medium- and high-molecular-weight polyesters for packaging and coil coatings. Used in interior coatings, the two new Dynapol high-molecular polyesters, Dynapol L 907 and Dynapol L 914, provide high media stability and pro-tective characteristics. The company claims that the polymers yielded the best results in sterilization tests with coated metal test specimens with spicy and highly staining foods.

The high-molecular-weight polyesters offer a suitable alternative to previous systems, which, in many cases, contained bisphenol-A (BPA). In January 2015, although concluding that BPA did not represent a risk to health for any age group at the current levels of exposure, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) low-ered the temporary tolerable daily intake of BPA to 4 µg/kg body weight. As of January 1, 2015, the use of materials containing BPA was forbidden in France for packaging coming into direct contact with food. Dynapol L 907 and Dynapol L 914 are both classified as “BPA-non-intentional” (BPA-NI) sub-stances.

Evonik’s Dynapol product range is specifically targeted at food-contact applications. These polyester resins are established binders for the production of pre-coated metal packaging, which are suited for use in food cans and meet the technical requirements of the market. In combination with the cross linker Vestanat B 1186 A, which is approved by the FDA, it is possible to formulate coatings boasting both flexibility and chemical stability, which are suitable for the high requirements of the sterilization tests used in this sector.

Researchers develop biodegradable food packaging

Researchers in the EU-funded project “N-CHITOPACK” have developed new biode-gradable food packaging materials from chitin, a common seafood industry waste product. According to the project coordinator, Mavi Sud Srl in Italy, the next step is a new project which will work to produce what was achieved in the lab, but on an industrial scale. Scientists found that chitin from seafood waste can be used to make chitin nanofibrils, a potential bio-based polymer.

The “Sustainable technologies for the production of biodegradable materials based on natural chitin-nanofibrils derived by waste of fish industry, to produce food grade packaging (N-CHITOPACK)” project aimed to use chitin nanofibrils to produce antibacterial and biodegradable bioplastics for food packaging. The project also generated some other interesting and as yet unpub-lished results during the course of its exploration into chitin – the team verified the possibility of using chitin nanofibrils and chitin oligosaccharides as plant biocides and plant growth promoters.


New X-ray machine for food packaging inspection

Loma Systems, the United Kingdom, has developed a cost efficient and highly functional X-ray machine, X5c (Compact), that is specifically aimed at food manufacturers, processors and packers running multi-product, retail ready lines. The company claims that the food inspection technology has been devised on its ‘Designed to Survive’ ethos and has successfully reduced the cost of owning the technology by 30% in comparison to other similar equipments. The new machine that was manufactured at Loma’s facility in Farnborough is password protected and helps in enhancing data management. Made from brushed stainless steel, it comes with a quick release belt that can be removed completely without tools.

The machine’s slopping surface prevents food particles and washdown droplets from getting col-lected in crevices. The X5c is equipped to detect glass, calcified bone, rubber, stone and ferrous, non ferrous and stainless steel metal in packaging. “With the recent BRC Global Standard for Food Safety Issue 7 and retailers’ Codes of Practice further recognising the use of X-ray inspection systems in the food industry, Loma used its considerable knowledge, experience and resources to build a system that offers major cost advantages and opens up X-ray inspection technology to those food manufacturers, processors and packers who previously considered it too expensive,” said Tony Bryant at Loma Systems.

In terms of cost, it compares extremely favourably with other types of inspection equipment. Although it is a streamlined unit, the X5C has been designed using industry-proven subcomponents which have been optimised to give the maximum performance. Operating at line speeds up to 50 metres per min-ute and measuring one metre in length, the machine can handle products measuring 100 mm (height) x and 300 mm (width), weighing less than 3kg.

Innovative technology to keep mangoes fresh

Addressing the needs of a company that sells mango as raw material for processing as puree, nec-tar or juice, researchers at the University of Guanajuato (UGTO), Mexico, has designed a prototype pas-teurization machine and a procedures manual to keep products in excellent condition after harvest. “In the Innovation Research Program of High Added Value (Innovapyme) of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), mango products were studied for a year to learn how to keep them in optimal condition,” said Maria Del Rosario Abraham Juarez, at UGTO.

It also prevents oxidation of the mango pulp, as well as a dark color of the pulp, one of the objectives of pasteurization. The technology conducted by researchers at the UGTO is pasteurizing mango varie-ties and maintaining their organoleptic pulp, which maintains its physical characteristics, and which is dehydrated without losing its flavor, color or nutrition. “We work with five species of mango and talk about a technology that pasteurizes industrial tons of fruit. We verify its operation so that the fruit pulp maintains the characteristics of fresh mango,” said Abraham Juarez.

According to the researcher, the company was satisfied with the technology and manual used for the five varieties of the fruit. And Abraham Juarez said that because the most difficult task was to man-age the fiber of the fruit, they learned to maintain a certain temperature. “Both the manual and technology were designed specifically for the mango industry, because we did a tailored suite for the company that requested it. And if a company is engaged in processing strawberries, technology should be designed specifically for them,” concluded Abraham Juarez.

New revolutionary microwave technology

A former scientist from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States, has developed a new microwave technology that’ll revolutionize the whole industry. Mark Rob-ber, has developed an amazing new microwave technology where users can actually see their food cooking from the inside and out. The new microwave technology uses infrared to see how cooked your meal is, instead of having to restart the oven over and over again because every time you take a bite, the food’s still frozen (or just cold) on the inside. This project, called Heat Map Microwave, is ma-jor news for all the “microwave chefs”.

The way the new microwave technology works is surprisingly simple, though it’s taken years for anyone to even think about developing it: there’s an infrared camera inside the machine which monitors how the food is cooking, with a screen outside the oven that displays a heat map of what the camera’s catching. Basically, cold food will look blue in the screen, and as it heats up it turns redder and redder – and, when the food is entirely heated, the color changes once again and the screen will show the food as white. Before embarking on creating the most awesome new microwave technology in the world, Robber had his eyes on the stars, as he worked in the famous Mars Rover project before embarking on entrepreneurship on his own.

Coconut shredder helps curb mosquito menace

Mr. T.P. Ramachandra Rao, proprietor of Kiran Engineers at J.R.D. Tata Industrial Estate, India, has developed a machine that can shred the discarded coconuts into pieces which can be used as a fuel. The machine can be mounted on a trolley, powered either by a 3 HP motor or 5 HP diesel engine costs just about Rs. 1 lakh. “Civic bodies which face problem of disposal of discarded tender co-conuts can look at these machines for a solution,” said Mr. Ramachandra Rao.

The juicy matter and little quantities of water left in the coconuts attract mosquitoes, which multiply in the undisturbed conditions. These coconuts take three to four weeks for completely drying up and be-fore it happens ‘fresh stocks’ arrive. The machine developed by Mr. Ramachandra Rao, a mechanical engineer specialising in making bio-mass shredding machines, can process about 2,000 to 3,000 coconuts in an hour. The machine consumes power worth just two paisa per coconut.

A study on performance of passive solar food dryer

In a study, a multipurpose passive solar food dryer which was indigenously designed by re-searchers from University of Technology, Nigeria, was evaluated using yam, tomatoes, pepper and fish. The performance evaluation results showed that it took 3 hours to dry 0.6kg of yam with moisture content of 58.3% wet basis in the solar dryer at a global solar radiation of 825 W/m2 while it took 8 hours to dry same mass of yam in open-air sun at the same global solar radiation. For tomatoes and pepper with moisture content of 93.3% wet basis and mass of 0.3kg, it took 2.5 hours to dry in the solar food dryer at a global solar radiation of 802 W/m2 while it took 6 hours to dry same mass in open-air sun at same solar radiation.

For fish with moisture content of 68% wet basis, it took 10 hours to dry a mass of 0.25kg in the solar dryer at a global solar radiation of 532.8 W/m2 and 24 hours to dry same mass in the open-air sun at same global solar radiation. The thermal efficiency of the developed solar collector is 60% and the dryer efficiency for yam, tomatoes & pepper and fish are 33.0%, 19.3% and 6.6% respectively. The study revealed that the solar food dryer is therefore more efficient for drying of yams as against tomatoes, pepper and fish, and consumes less time when compared with open air sun drying.


High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing

This book presents the fundamentals of high pressure technologies from the perspective of mass trans-fer phenomena and thermodynamic considerations. Novel food applications are exposed and their relation to chemical analysis, extraction, reaction and particle formation processes are outlined. The chapters are writ-ten by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in chemistry, food processes, analytical chemistry, chemi-cal engineering and chemical engineering thermodynamics, and biotechnology.

Contact: Springer Science+Business Media Singapore Private Limited, 152 Beach Road, #22-06/08, Gateway East, Singapore - 189721; E-mail:

Handbook of Antioxidants for Food Preservation

This book provides an overview of the food antioxidants currently available and their applications in different food products. Part one provides background information on a comprehensive list of the main natural and syn-thetic antioxidants used in food. Part two looks at methodologies for using antioxidants in food, focusing on the efficacy of antioxidants. Part three covers the main food commodities in which antioxidants are used.

Contact: Elsevier (Asia Pacific), 3 Killiney Road #08-01 Winsland House I, Singapore 239519, Tel. +65-6-349-0222; Fax. +65-6-733-1510; E-mail:

Innovations in Postharvest Technology Series

This book provides comprehensive information on the innovations and emerging technologies in postharvest & processing of horticultural commodities, as well as postharvest physiology, biochemistry, ripening, and engineering aspects. The series comprises books on ripening physiology, biochemistry, treatments to enhance shelf-life, chilling injury, fresh cut and minimal processing, postharvest pathology and physiological disorders. The series includes books on postharvest biology and technology of tropical, subtropical, and temperate fruits of global importance as well as vegetables and spices. The books are for food scientists, postharvest researchers and in-dustries, and graduate and postgraduate level students.

Contact: CRC Press; Tel: +44-1235-400524; Fax: +44-1235-400525; E-mail:


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