VATIS Update Food Processing . Oct-Dec 2012

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Food Processing Oct-Dec 2012

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Global food safety testing sector to hit US$19 billion

Driven by the continuous increase in product recalls owing to contamination by various micro-organisms, rising awareness and implementation of new regulatory specifications, the global market for food-safety testing is projected to reach US$19.7 billion by 2018, says a new report from Global Industry Analysts (GIA). According to the “Food Safety Testing – A Global Strategic Business Report”, the United States represents the largest regional market worldwide. Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing market in the world for food safety testing. The region suffers from lack of adequate regulations for ensuring food safety, and the lax implementation of such regulations, particularly in highly populous countries of India and China.

Pathogen testing segment garners a lion’s share of the food-safety testing market. Genetically modified organism (GMO) testing represents the fastest-growing segment in the global food safety testing market. In terms of end-use segments, processed foods industry is the largest market for food safety testing products. The United States represents the largest regional market for food safety testing products in processed foods industry. Fastest growth is expected from the meat industry, which has witnessed growing demand for testing products with innovative biochip and microchip technologies, because of their ability to detect the presence of new pathogen varieties in food particles.

In the United States, expansion and diversification of the food testing market can be attributed to extensive media reports covering product recalls and illness and death resulting from contaminated foods. To address the risks posed by global food supply, and forced by Federal regulations, food processors now demand comprehensive testing procedures to both improve and develop more sophisticated processing, preservation and packaging techniques to make food safer and less perishable.

Asia to improve information-sharing for food safety

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are working with Asian countries to develop a strategy to make better use of a global food safety network. Increased participation in the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) would help countries to better manage food safety emergencies, reducing the health risk to consumers and increasing the availability of safe food. “With increasing levels of international travel and trade, food-borne disease outbreaks and food contamination events that once only affected local communities can now quickly become global health threats,” says Dr. Shin Young-soo, WHO Regional Director, the Western Pacific. “I urge all countries to do more to ensure food safety.”

Using the information available at INFOSAN, governments can take rapid action to protect and inform people. Nations have been strengthening their national food control systems based on the frameworks developed by WHO and FAO. The frameworks include steps to improve food safety policies and coordination among food safety agencies and to develop evidence-based legislation, risk-based food inspection services and more reliable consumer information.

Even the most advanced food safety systems are vulnerable to food-borne outbreaks. “An essential element of dealing with emergencies is to be as prepared as possible and ensure procedures are in place to facilitate information sharing among and between national authorities and the private sector and through regional collaboration and networks,” states Mr. Jean Michel Poirson, FAO’s Senior Food Safety Officer.

Global demand grows for food safety products

Driven by the rapid adoption of new smart label technology in food packaging and heightened emphasis on traceability in the food supply chain, smart labels and tags will have good opportunities, according to ‘World Food Safety Products’, a new study from the industry research firm The Freedonia Group, the United States. The report forecasts world demand for food safety products will rise by over eight per cent per year to US$18 billion in 2016. A number of factors will contribute to this growth:
  • Consumer, food industry participants, and legislator concern with the prevention, identification, and traceability of food contaminants – heightened by international outbreaks of food-borne illnesses and large product recalls due to food safety concerns;
  • Growth in food and beverage production as well as the food service industry – the largest markets for food safety products; and
  • Developed and developing countries will adopt more stringent food safety regulations.

The United States will remain the world’s largest user of food safety products, accounting for a quarter of the world market through the forecast period. However, the most rapid advances will occur in developing regions. China will continue to see some of the fastest growth in demand as pressure mounts following a number of food safety incidents. In the coming years, China will surpass Japan to become the world’s second largest food safety product market. On a smaller scale, India, Brazil, Russia and Mexico will also see rapid increases in food safety product demand through 2016, says the study.

India’s National Mission on Food Processing

India launched its National Mission on Food Processing (NFMP) on 1 April 2012, as a national mega programme covering critical aspects of the food processing industry. NMFP focuses on food processing for enhancing farm productivity and revenue. It facilitates by addressing both institutional and infrastructural gaps along the value chains. It also has provision for promoting skill development, training and entrepreneurship in post-harvest management.

The central government has allocated Rs 2,500 million (US$45.5 million) for NMFP in the financial year 2012-2013, out of which an amount of about Rs 1,790 million (US$32.6 million) has been already released as the first instalment of grant to the states and union territories. The funding pattern for NFMP is 75:25 by the national government and state governments respectively, except for North-Eastern States where the ratio is 90:10 and the union territories which will be funded 100 per cent.

In the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-2012), 79 cold chain projects were approved, out of which 73 projects have been sanctioned by the Ministry of Food Processing in different parts of the country. Eight projects have already started commercial production, while the remaining projects are in various stages of implementation. The government has also approved setting up of 25 new abattoirs and modernization of 25 existing abattoirs involving an estimated expenditure of Rs 3,308 million (US$ 60.3 million). Besides the setting up of 30 mega food parks across the country, the plan also has strong human resources development and capacity building components.

China’s grain imports jump twofold in 2012

China, the world’s largest grain consumer, saw its grain imports jump twofold during January-November 2012, compared with a year earlier. During the first 11 months of 2012, China’s grain imports were 13.4 million metric tonnes (MMT), compared with 4.5 MMT in the same period last year, the latest industry data showed. This has triggered a concern about the country’s long-asserted goal of maintaining its food security by domestically producing 95 per cent of the rice, corn and wheat it consumes. But analysts said, given the country’s usual huge imports of soybeans and barley, the increased imports of these two crops are “within expectations”.

Some market observers, however, are still worried about the strong increases of imports seen in rice and wheat. Rice imports in the first 10 months of 2012 hit a historic high of 1.98 MMT, compared with 505,000 MMT in the same period in 2011, according to the General Administration of Customs. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated China’s rice imports this year will surge by four and a half times from a year earlier to 26 MMT. This would make China the world’s second-largest importer of the crop, behind only Nigeria. China’s rice imports have hovered around 450,000 MMT per year over the past five years, in which high-end fragrant varieties accounted for the largest proportion. But this year’s imports, in contrast, were mainly composed of cheaper cracked rice from Viet Nam and Pakistan.

China’s grain output this year rose 3.2 per cent from a year earlier to 589.57 MMT, marking the ninth consecutive year of growth, according to data from the National Bureau of Statistics. The country’s corn output this year amounted to 208.1 MMT, up 8 per cent from a year earlier. Rice increased by 1.6 per cent to 204.3 MMT, while wheat gained 2.7 per cent to 120.6 MMT. These numbers show that corn has replaced wheat as China’s chief grain variety, the Bureau stated.

Viet Nam’s farm produce export volumes increase

Viet Nam’s export values of major agricultural products like coffee, rice and cashew in 2012 have surpassed those in 2011, thanks to higher export volumes. Pepper is the exception – its export volume has tumbled compared with the previous year, but its export revenue has risen due to higher prices. The nation exported 110,000 tonnes of pepper worth US$ 750 million in the January-November period, dropping 8.9 per cent in volume but rising 6 per cent in value compared with the same period last year, according to the Viet Nam Pepper Association.

The Viet Nam Cashew Association expects to see the cashew export volume and value exceeding targets set up early 2012. The Association’s General Secretary Mr. Dang Hoang Giang said that local firms have exported 220,000 tonnes of cashew nuts, up nearly 40,000 tonnes from 2011, while value has risen by US$ 150 million to US$1.45 billion. The export prices of cashew hover at around US$6,500-6,700 per tonne in 2012, down 10-15 per cent year-on-year.

A report of Viet Nam Food Association shows that Viet Nam exported over 7.2 million tonnes of rice worth US$3.2 billion as of 6 December 2012, compared with 7.1 million tonnes worth US$3.5 billion last year. By year end, this is expected to go up to around 7.7 million tonnes worth US$3.5 billion. Similarly, the coffee sector has also met the year’s target due to higher export volume. The Viet Nam Coffee and Cocoa Association has said that coffee export volume jumped 23 per cent to 1.6 million tonnes at the value of nearly US$3.4 billion, although coffee export prices average out at US$200 per tonne less this year.

Spurt in food, beverage imports in Indonesia

Imports of food and beverages in Indonesia in 2012 are expected to grow by 10 per cent over 2011, according to the Indonesian Food and Beverage Association. Mr. Adhi S. Lukman, the Association’s Chairperson, said: “By September, the importation of food and beverage had reached US$4.3 billion. By the year end, the import is predicted to reach US$6.5 billion.” Mr. Lukman remarked that food and beverage exports from Indonesia to other South East Asian economies had also registered a healthy growth. “By the year end, the Association expects the exports of foods and beverages from Indonesia to reach US$4.9 billion, 20 per cent higher from that of last year,” he said.

Low-fat milk to be launched in Nepal

The Dairy Development Corporation (DDC) of Nepal is planning to introduce low-fat milk in the market. The state entity is planning to launch 0.5 per cent fat containing milk targeting fat-conscious consumers. DDC will introduce low-fat milk in Kathmandu early March 2012, said the General Manager of DDC, Mr. Siyaram Prasad Shah. The Corporation is planning to introduce low-fat milk to the niche market of those who prefer to shop in department stores and malls, which sell low-fat milk imported from India and Europe. Nepal’s Food Act has made it mandatory for three per cent fat and eight per cent solid but not fat (SNF) in milk. However, the Act has not barred companies from producing products for niche markets. There is no restriction to introduce low-fat products if the fat quantity is mentioned in the packaging. The state-owned corporation also plans to brand and sell cow’s milk in the capital, Mr. Shah said.

Pakistan to promote R&D in dairy, poultry sectors

Pakistan’s Federal Government has plans to launch a poultry and dairy industry project worth PRs 560.44 million (US$5.7 million), including PRs 23.94 million (US$243,100) of foreign exchange component, to meet the growing demand of food products in the country. Livestock, as an important sub-sector of the agricultural economy of Pakistan, is playing vital role by contributing 11.4 per cent to the gross domestic product (GDP), accounting for 49.1 per cent of the value-added agriculture. The sub-sector, which has at present about 143 million livestock heads and a rural workforce of more than 35 million people, earns more than PRs 25 billion (US$254 million) in foreign exchange. Poultry too contributes a large amount of money to the national economy with an investment of more than PRs 70 billion (US$710 million) and has become the second largest industry after textiles in the country.

The project ‘Establishment of Poultry and Dairy Animal Training and Research Centres’ in Punjab is aimed at promoting livestock sector, which is increasing the animal protein by improving the productive potential of livestock and poultry in local environment. The project is part of 15-year vision/perspective plan of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore. New technology will be introduced by setting up research units at UVAS. Modern research and training centres will be established to facilitate priority research. Practical training will be provided to poultry farmers, and collaboration will be promoted between dairy farmers and various national and international dairy institutions.


China updates food, water safety standards

In 2012, China published 88 new standards on food safety and expanded the monitoring network on chemical contaminants and pathogenic micro-organisms in food from 25 per cent of county-level administrative regions to 47 per cent, according to Vice Minister of Health Mr. Chen Xiaohong. The country is to intensify supervision of food and water safety in 2013 too. Speaking at a forum on health supervision, Mr. Chen pledged that 60 per cent of counties would be covered by the end of 2013.

The standard on water safety was updated in July 2012 to comprise 106 indicators instead of the previous 35. Eighty-three per cent of water from plants in cities qualified under the new standard, according to Mr. Chen. Some 28,600 water safety inspection stations have been set up so far, covering all cities at or above prefecture level and 30 per cent of all counties. In 2012, 486 additional medical institutions were licensed to offer occupational health inspection services, according to Mr. Chen, who added that by 2013, more than 90 per cent of China’s counties will have adequate occupational health evaluation centres.

New regulation on baby food formula in Viet Nam

The Viet Nam Food Administration announced on 26 December 2012 its new regulation on formula food for babies less than 12 months and from six to 36 months of age. The regulation will take effect from 1 June 2013. The new regulation mentions four kinds of baby food formulas: formula for children under 12 months; special formula for babies under 12 months who have problem with normal formula and need medical treatment; food supplement for children from six to 36 months; and formula made from cereal for children from six to 36 months of age.

The Viet Nam Food Administration will also regulate levels of taurine and docosahexaenoic acid added to baby food formulas. Food companies will in future have to show evidence of safety and necessity for children when adding such substances into the formula. The content of these substances needs to be same as stated on labels. Fluoride will not be allowed in the baby food formula. Tolerable levels of melamine will be set at 1 mg in a kg of baby milk powder.

EFSA updates TWIs for mercury found in foods

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has established Tolerable Weekly Intakes (TWIs) meant to protect consumers from adverse health effects posed by the possible presence of methylmercury and inorganic mercury, the main forms of mercury found in food. Methylmercury is the predominant form of mercury in fish and other seafood, and is particularly toxic to the developing nervous system including the brain. Inorganic mercury is less toxic and also can be found in fish and other seafood as well as ready-made meals.

EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain reviewed new scientific information regarding the toxicity of these forms of mercury and evaluated provisional TWIs established in 2003 and 2010 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The Panel has established a TWI for inorganic mercury of 4 µg/kg body weight (bw), which is in tune with JECFA. For methylmercury, the Panel has proposed a TWI of 1.3 µg/kg bw, which is lower than JECFA’s 1.6 µg/kg bw.

Fish meat – particularly tuna, cod, swordfish, whiting and pike – was identified as the most important contributor of methylmercury exposure in Europe for all age groups. This opinion focuses only on the risks related to inorganic mercury and methylmercury exposure through the diet, and does not assess the nutritional benefits linked to certain food like fish and other seafood. However, if risk managers are considering measures for reduction of methylmercury exposure, they must also take into account the potential beneficial effects of fish consumption, the Panel stated.

Stricter food safety laws proposed

Beijing is all set to introduce tough new municipal laws to punish firms that flout food safety laws, a significant move in China’s struggle to improve its record on food safety. Under the new regulations, which will take effect in April 2013, firms caught producing or selling unsafe foods will be banned from operating in Beijing for life. Employees found responsible for food safety problems and the executives of those companies that cause food safety problems will not be permitted to work in the industry for five years after their firms’ licences are revoked, a report by the official news agency Xinhua said. Shanghai too has adopted a similar measure.


Mobile food allergen testing device

A research team from the Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science of University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), the United States, has developed the iTube – a lightweight smart phone attachment that can detect allergens in food samples. Currently, the only products available to detect allergens in food are complex and require bulky equipment that is not suitable for rapid testing at a cafe or supermarket. The iTube, which weighs just 57 g, was developed to address these issues. The iTube attachment utilizes the cellphone’s built-in camera, together with an accompanying smart-phone application that runs a test with the same high level of sensitivity that a laboratory would.

Mr. Aydogan Ozcan, leader of the research team and a UCLA associate professor of electrical engineering and bioengineering, says the attachment analyses a test tube-based allergen concentration test known as colorimetric assay. To test for allergens, food samples are first ground up and mixed in a test tube with hot water and an extraction solvent, then allowed to set for several minutes. The sample prepared is then mixed with a series of other reactive testing liquids. The entire preparation takes roughly 20 minutes. When ready, the sample is measured optically for allergen concentration via the iTube platform, using the camera and the phone application.

The device digitally converts raw images from the cell phone camera into concentration measurements detected in the food samples. And beyond a simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer about the presence of allergens, the test can also quantify how much of an allergen is in a sample (in parts per million). The iTube platform can test allergens such as peanuts, almonds, eggs, gluten and hazelnuts, Mr. Ozcan says. The researchers have successfully tested the device using commercially available cookies, analysing the samples to find out if they had any harmful amount of peanuts, a potential allergen.

New test for pesticide residues in olive oil

A new, cheap and fast way to detect insecticide residues in olive oil is the focus of joint research by scientists France and Morocco. The biosensors that they developed have shown promise as a more efficient means to detect organophosphate pesticides commonly used on olive trees. Led by Prof. Thierry Noguer, the team of researchers from the Universities of Perpignan in France and of Ibn Zohr in Morocco is evaluating the use of amperometric biosensors to detect pesticides through changes in electric current. Specifically, the researchers are using an enzyme from electric eels – acetylcholinesterase (AChE) – which is entrapped using a method known as the sol-gel process.

The researchers stated that they tested the viability of the method on the detection of insecticides from extra virgin olive oil that was spiked with known quantities of the oxidized forms of malathion, dimethoate and methidathion. The analysis of these spiked olive oil samples reportedly achieved nearly 100 per cent recovery of insecticides from the spiked samples and showed a good correlation with results obtained via conventional methods, the researchers wrote, concluding that “a cheap, fast and simple amperometric biosensor” had been developed. “The limits of detection of the developed devices were very compatible with the maximum residue limit tolerated by international regulations” the researchers wrote. The estimated cost of one test using a biosensor is approximately US$ 0.60, which factors in the costs of fabrication of the biosensor and the analysis.

Novel test spots Salmonella in cattle

Veterinarians can now test for a certain Salmonella strain affecting cattle populations, thanks to a test developed by researchers at the College of Veterinary Medicine of Cornell University, the United States. The new test tracks antibodies in cattle to help identify asymptomatic carriers of the Dublin strain of Salmonella that causes disease in young cattle and unborn calves, sometimes fatally. Infected cattle can transfer the bacteria to humans via direct-contact or contaminated food. The new test can be used on samples from bulk milk tanks to determine if an entire herd has been contaminated, compared to previous tests that could be used only on individual animals.

New diagnostic kit for testing ricin poisoning

A new diagnostic kit jointly developed by Singapore’s DSO National Laboratories and Australia’s Defence Science Technology Organization (DSTO) will allow for the testing of a potent toxin, known as ricin, in humans. Ricin is found in the common castor bean plant, the oil from which is widely used industrially. When inhaled or injected, a dose as small as a few grains can kill an adult human. Current diagnostic kits can test for ricin contamination in food, soil or water, but not humans.

The danger of ricin poisoning lies in the symptoms exhibited, which are similar to common food poisoning or respiratory illness. This makes the diagnosis of ricin poisoning particularly challenging. With the new kit, ricin poisoning can be immediately detected, by running human samples such blood and stools, through the kit. “For this test, we only need 50 micro-litres of sample. That is probably equivalent to two drops if you do a finger prick,” said Mr. Chen Hsiao Ying, senior technical staff at the Defence, Medical and Environmental Research Institute, Singapore.

Tracking Campylobacter outbreaks fast

Scientists at the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR), New Zealand, have developed new technology to track the causes of Campylobacter outbreaks within hours. Using the technology, scientists can know within hours if patients involved in a campylobacteriosis outbreak have the same strain of the micro-organism from a common source and raise the alarm so that food safety authorities can take appropriate actions. In the past, it would have taken up to 3-5 days to link an outbreak to its source.

M-BiT, the new system, is a type of “DNA fingerprinting” allowing scientists to see each individual strain of the bacterium as a “bar code”. Similar to human fingerprints, each strain has its own unique pattern, which allows scientists to quickly tell if people are being made ill by the same strain and to help track it back to the common source. Dr. Fiona Thomson-Carter, General Manager, ESR’s Environmental Health, says the DNA fingerprinting, or genotyping, is cutting edge technology. “It is a new molecular method where we take DNA from bacteria, and produce a DNA “fingerprint” within hours – meaning each strain appears as an individual ‘barcode’ to help us assess if they might be linked to the same source of infection.”

ESR has developed and successfully trialled the new genotyping system, which is said to offer the fastest response of any definitive DNA-based typing system known so far. Test results can also easily be exchanged and compared between laboratories and might even provide an insight into how much risk to human health is posed by any one strain. ESR is now trialling the M-BiT technology on other food-borne bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7.

Sandia probability maps help sniff out food contamination

Uncovering the sources of fresh food contamination could become faster and easier, thanks to analysis done at Sandia National Laboratories’ National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Centre (NISAC), the United States. The study shows how developing a probability map of the food supply network using stochastic network representation might shorten the time it takes to track down contaminated food sources. Stochastic mapping shows what is known about product flow through the distribution supply chain, and provides a means to express all the uncertainties in potential supplier-customer relationships that persist due to incomplete information. When used on a larger scale, the method could also assess the vulnerability of food supplies to wide-scale, deliberate contamination.

In the event of an outbreak, epidemiologists must interview affected people to track down where food-borne exposures occurred. Once the tainted food has been identified, investigators must trace up through the food distribution chain to locate the source of contamination. Food supply chains vary widely from one food marketing system and agricultural sector to another. Even within one agricultural sector, some parts of the food supply chain may change in nature. The researchers applied the stochastic mapping technique to test data from the fresh sprout sector in a single state in the United States, using a case study of the edible seed sprout distribution system as the basis of the computational model. Stochastic network representation enables the uncertainties to be included as well as expressed using probability maps. It enables effective risk analyses and designing of robust food defence strategies. Ultimately, NISAC intends to work with partners in business as well as federal and state agencies to ascertain whether the agencies have a business case for adopting the method.


Tasty and gluten-free pasta and pastries

Many people are afflicted by celiac disease – intolerance to the protein gluten, which is chiefly found in the cereals wheat, spelt, barley and rye. For those affected, this means giving up food made with these cereals. While the demand for gluten-free food products has risen steadily over the years, many consumers dislike them because they are unappetizing, lack texture and leave behind an unpleasant taste in the mouth. The European Union project GlutenFree, which is being coordinated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV) in Germany, aims to enable companies develop premium, tasty gluten-free products, primarily pasta and bread, that have improved taste, smell, appearance, texture as well as mouth-feel.

The two protein fractions that gluten contains, gliadins and glutenins, form a network-like structure – the dough matrix – to give the dough good porosity and a visco-elasticity that allows it to keep its shape and remain elastic while being baked, says IVV scientist Mr. Jürgen Bez. Gluten-free bakery products dry out more quickly, crumble more easily and have a shorter shelf-life. Pasta without gluten overcooks fast, and is sticky and less elastic. The researchers have been successful in finding ingredients, such as plant proteins, which lend gluten-free products the same structuring effect as the protein gluten.

“Adding the hydrocolloid xanthan gum succeeds in giving dough a particular elasticity, though here the end result is heavily dependent on the concentration, the proportion of water, the type of flour and the other ingredients. Getting the right combination is crucial”, states Mr. Bez. Using a special technique, the scientists are able to extract a protein isolate containing visco-elastic properties from the seeds of lupins and broad beans. “By adding lupin proteins, we were able to improve the volume of baked goods”, says Mr. Bez. Scientists also established that adding sourdough helps prevent loaves from going mouldy so quickly, noting that dough becomes more elastic and that loaves stay fresh for longer.

The project partners have succeeded in producing a range of new and improved gluten-free breads, such as toast bread, leavened bread and oat wholemeal bread, baguettes, ciabatta and pizza dough. Furthermore, they were able to produce tasty, gluten-free spaghetti with high fibre and protein contents. Contact: Mr. Jürgen Bez, Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging – IVV, Giggenhauser Straße 35, 85354 Freising, Germany. Tel: +49 (8161) 491430; Fax +49 (8161) 491444.

A high-potency natural sweetener

Researchers have carried out early sensory studies of a natural sweetener, revealing its potential use as a high-potency sweetener in low-calorie beverages. Researchers from the University of Naples, Italy, performed sensory studies on modified monellin protein (MNEI) in conditions typically encountered during beverage processing and consumption. In testing the sweetener’s re-cognition threshold (RT), the research team determined that the sweet taste RT of MNEI is 3,000 times lower than that of sucrose. Further, mineral content and temperature affected MNEI detection threshold, although pH and thermal treatment did not affect perceived sweetness. The research team acknowledge that sweeteners are not used in beverages at their RT concentrations, but that results of this study are a solid first step towards determining the sensory performance of MNEI.

New granulated chocolate powder

Spanish ingredients producer Natra has unveiled a new granulated chocolate product that it says will form a ‘new generation’ of powdered chocolate for the industry. Natra developed the ingredient as a solution for manufacturers who wished to use a chocolate powder that retained key features and tastes of whole chocolate. Mr. Jose Luis Villasante, Industry Chief Sales Officer at Natra, revealed that the new granulated powder offers higher stability and easier handling on industrial scales than other similar ingredients.

“It is really resistant to heat,” said Mr. Villasante. “Our granulated chocolate powder can undergo processes at much higher temperatures than normal chocolate powder,” he added, noting that as the powder is stable at room temperature and does not melt at the temperature of traditional chocolates, it offers advantages in industrial processes. “In this new generation of chocolate powder, we use a full, whole chocolate that has all the flavour of real chocolate. It is really a chocolate that has all the fat and the ingredients that a normal chocolate has,” Mr. Villasante added. “The difference is the texture,” said Ms. Carmen Martínez of Natra, who explained that because the product is granulated, the mouth feel, texture and taste of the product is ‘totally different’ to other powdered products on the market. The ‘crunchy’ taste of the granulated chocolate also provides a key difference against existing products, while the granulated nature of the product makes it ideal for use in ice cream and certain dairy applications, she said.

New anthocyanin identification process

Symrise AG, based in Germany, has developed a procedure for analysing the health-promoting ingredients in wild bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus). The company says that the process allows individual anthocyanins to be precisely and more quickly identified, while the efficient and environment-friendly analysis method guarantees that product quality remains consistently high. Anthocyanins are plant-based secondary ingredients that have antioxidant properties. Different plants create these compounds in different ways; the bilberry has no fewer than 15 different anthocyanins. Various chromatographic methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), are used to identify and classify the anthocyanins.

Symrise scientists further refined the standard method outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia. The new technology is said to be incredibly sensitive and to deliver accurate, high-resolution data, reliably detecting biofunctional ingredients. With the novel HPLC method, Symrise believes it has succeeded in substantially increasing the efficiency of the analysis process that identifies biofunctional ingredients in wild bilberries while also improving environmental compatibility. The quality of extracts, such as those from the bilberry, can also be checked more thoroughly with this method and can even be optimized and improved, the company says. The method separates and quantifies the anthocyanins three times faster than other methods, reducing energy costs as well as the volume of solvents used by a third. All the solvents are biodegradable, which eliminates disposal costs. Additionally, the new method of analysis enables precise determination of the content and distribution of anthocyanins as well as their individual composition by means of conventional analytical equipment.

Patent for extraction of natural tomato complex

LycoRed Limited, Israel, has been granted a European patent for its proprietary extraction process of the Lyc-O-Mato oleoresin from tomatoes. This process is the basis for the “Novel Food approval” of this tomato extract, and for the Food additive E 160d(ii). Clinical studies demonstrate that greater intake of lycopene from tomatoes is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, and may also offer additional benefits in blood pressure management. Lyc-O-Mato, a tomato lycopene complex, when taken orally, helps provide protection against free-radical damage and environmental stress, helps protect the skin from exposure to sun and to maintain the healthy appearance and structure of skin that has been exposed to sun, the company claims. “Our Lyc-O-Mato contains a specific proprietary natural composition of tomato lycopene and other tomato phytonutrients, including phytoene, phytofluene, tocopherols, phytosterols and beta-carotene, as opposed to other lycopene products available currently on the market,” says Dr. Yoav Blatt, Chief Technical Officer for LycoRed.

Omega 3 emulsion

Croda International Plc, the United Kingdom, has started marketing its new omega 3 emulsion, called Incromega™ 3mulsion. The 3mulsion is ideal for inclusion in convenient sachets or syrup applications. It comes as a omega-3 blend of 250 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and 250 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) aimed at children who may not wish to take supplements. Just one single-serve sachet or a spoonful of the flavoured emulsion will provide the full omega 3 recommended dietary allowance (RDA).

The Incromega 3mulsion DHA is Croda’s first flavoured emulsion that offers a convenient delivery system for omega 3. The delicious lemon flavoured 3mulsion is ideal for syrup applications. The product is said to be very stable. When tested against existing branded omega-3 emulsions, the branded emulsions have been found to have separated (that is, fish oil layering out in the emulsion) whereas 3mulsion was highly stable and did not separate out. Contact: Croda International Plc., Cowick Hall, Snaith, Goole, East Yorkshire, DN14 9AA, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1405) 860551; Fax: +44 (1405) 861767.


Microwaves to extend shelf-life of food

A microwave technology, developed in the United Kingdom by Advanced Microwave Technologies (AMT) and Queen Margaret University, extends the shelf-life of food significantly, while retaining its freshness and nutritional goodness. The technology works by heating and cooling products in seconds. It pasteurizes by killing bacteria at low temperatures without compromising taste and nutritional value, allowing food to remain fresher for longer. Trials conducted with commercial food companies, such as fruit juice producers, helped researchers prove that the new technology – a very gentle process of pasteurization – can extend the shelf-life of food and beverages without destroying nutrients and antioxidants or altering taste. The process can also reduce salt in products by up to 15 per cent. Researchers from Queen Margaret University claim the technique has the potential to transform global food manufacturing.

Enzyme that extends shelf-life

DuPont, based in the United States, has introduced a new range of novel enzymes which could help manufacturers to extend the shelf-life of cakes by up to two weeks. DuPont said that its PowerSoft Cake 8000 will enable bakers to make seasonal cakes earlier. “Until now, mainly starch-hydrolysing activity such as standard maltogenic-amylase has been used in cake systems,” said Ms. Inge Lise Povlsen, DuPont Nutrition & Health’s Bakery Manager. “This type of enzyme hydrolyses the starch, resulting in the production of maltose, a disaccharide comprising two glucose molecules.” The patented enzyme technology from Dupont converts starch to maltotetraose, making enzyme activity less susceptible to sucrose inhibition. This produces a better taste and texture, as well as a longer shelf-life, Ms. Povlsen said.

New coating increases shelf-life of fruits

Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (IINRG) has developed a specialized fruit coating formulation that increases shelf-life by two weeks, preserves moisture and protects fruits from germs. Scientists have successfully tested the coating on Kinnow, a citrus fruit that resembles orange and is mainly grown in northern India. Tests are being conducted on other fruits, including orange and apple, and vegetables like pointed gourd and eggplant. Mr. S.K. Pandey, a scientist at IINRG, said after successfully testing the formulation, which is made from lac, on Kinnow last year, experts are at present working to develop a similar formulas for other fruits and some vegetables.

“There has to be a different formulation for every fruit. For example, Kinnow and orange look almost the same and a common man may not differentiate between the two. But if we use the same formulation for orange as for Kinnow, it will not work. Similarly, we need to have different formulation for fruits like apple that is consumed without removing the skin. In this case, we also need to get certificate from the Food Department to ensure that it is not harmful to the digestive system,” said one of the IINRG scientists. The formulation for Kinnow is available for commercial use and any company or individual willing to make use of it can approach IINRG. The coating, which is water-soluble and edible, also preserves moisture. This helps in long-distance transportation of fruits and in getting a wider market, Mr. Pandey stated, adding that the coating, which provides a shield against germs, can revolutionize the preservation of vegetables and fruits.

Microwaving to keep bread mould-free

MicroZap process developed by MizroZap, the United States, sterilizes food such as bread and fresh meat without cooking or damaging it. Bread treated with MicroZap had the same amount of mould 60 days later as when it had just come out of the oven, and the taste was maintained throughout. Besides bread, the researchers have successfully treated pet food, fresh turkeys, leafy herbs (such as coriander) and jalapeno peppers. “What we are trying to do is give some ability to have a long shelf-life without all the preservatives,” said Mr. Don Stull, the Chief Executive of MicroZap.

MicroZap technology uses pulsed microwave frequencies from multiple sources to pasteurize food. The food is zapped for a set time – 40 seconds for jalapeno peppers, for example. Unlike conventional microwave ovens, there are no hot and cold spots, and the process does not damage or cook the food, Mr. Stull said. The company claims its technology to be more effective at killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli than existing methods. It will also be more palatable for the public than irradiating food, said Mr. Stull. The technology is not suitable for all kinds of food: efforts to sterilize cantaloupes, for example, were a failure.


Technology for low-cal carbonated lassi

Scientists from the National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) in Karnal, India, have developed the technology for a reduced-calorie, naturally carbonated, sweetened, fermented dairy beverage. The yoghurt drink, lassi, is inexpensive to produce and has distinct sensory attributes with all the virtues of milk. The scientists, who are currently in the process for patenting the technology, developed the product through co-culturing Leuconostoc Ln27, a mannitol-producing native strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides isolated and characterized from fermented milk products, and L. lactis ssp. lactis NCDC 90 under optimized growth conditions.

The developed product had a calorific value 78 kcal/100 g against 106 kcal/100 g of the control product. During product formation there is a 35 per cent reduction in calorific value and 50 per cent reduction in sugar. The product is effervescent and has a tingling flavour owing to natural biofortification of product with carbon dioxide produced during fermentation of milk. The product has a storage life of five days under refrigerated conditions.

The product had about 3.1 per cent mannitol, which is known to have an antioxidant effect by scavenging off free hydroxyl radicals and the potential to extend the shelf-life of foodstuff. Some micro-organisms can specifically produce mannitol from sucrose or fructose without making a sorbitol by-product. Several heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc have been studied for production of mannitol from fructose and sucrose. Of these, Leuconostoc has been recognized to possess notable technological, functional and economic applications. Contact: Mr. Sudhir Kumar Tomar, Senior Scientist, Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India. Tel: +91 (184) 2259196; E-mail:,

World-class wines from tropical fruits

The Philippine Tropical Fruit Winery Corp. produces world-class wines from tropical fruits. The tropical fruit wines, said to be healthy and good for the body, are available in different fruit flavours, such as mango, banana, cashew, currant (bignay), soursop (guyabano), plum (duhat), coconut and passion fruit. They are produced from organic fruits in both red and white varieties under Mijiah and Piel brands. One of the bestselling wines is the sparkling currant wine, a full-bodied red wine with 12 per cent alcohol content.

Fresh juice processor automates pasteurization

Hoogesteger BV, the Netherlands, has been selling non-pasteurized freshly squeezed juices under its own brand and to private label operators for several years. To extend its geographical market for these products, Hoogesteger wanted to find a preservation method gentle enough to maintain the flavour intact, while extending shelf-life to 21 days or more. For this, the company teamed up with food scientists and process specialists at Food & Biobased Research in the Netherlands. The two companies chose pulsed electric field (PEF) technology as a potential solution. PEF, as a mild preservation method for foods, is not new, but its application to freshly squeezed juices is.

The PEF unit pre-heats incoming fresh juice to about half of the normal pasteurizing temperature, which conditions the micro-organisms to the treatment to come. An instant later, while the micro-organisms are “exposed”, the machine applies a micro-burst of electricity to the juice through two opposing electrodes. The PEF treatment creates pores in the membranes of the microbes, causing cell components to leak, eventually causing the cells to die. The result is an extension of the product’s refrigerated shelf-life by three times from its previous seven days. The product has virtually the same taste, colour and nutritious quality as before, thanks to the low processing temperature used.

Method for mango juice processing

Suntory Holdings Limited, Japan, is patenting a method for preparing mango juice that does not cause any sedimentation in the processed mango-juice or in a beverage that contains the mango juice even after long-term storage, while keeping the natural turbid appearance of the juice. The method involves a processing step with an enzyme preparation, centrifuging mango juice having a turbidity of 3700 NTU or greater for 10 minutes with a centrifugal effect of 1,200 G, and removal of pulp from the enzyme-processed product to obtain a mango-juice having a pulp content of 20 per cent (v/v) or less and a turbidity of 1400 NTU or greater. Contact: Suntory Holdings Limited, 1-40, Dojimahama 2-chome Kita-ku, Osaka-sh, Osaka 03, Japan.


Packaging that doubles shelf-life

Peakfresh, Australia, is offering a patented new Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) packaging that prolongs, even doubles, the shelf-life of fresh produce. All fresh produce generate ethylene gas that triggers the ripening process. The more ethylene present as a gas, the quicker the ripening process and the sooner the produce will mature and die. Peakfresh MAP is said to double shelf-life by adding a natural mineral to the plastic packaging material. The unique plastic wrapping material is interwoven with the mineral that removes the ethylene produced through the film wall and passes it on to the atmosphere.

In addition, the anti-fogging treatment of the film surface minimizes moisture formation to inhibit growth of mould and bacteria, and thereby keeping the produce fresh for longer periods. Peakfresh is available as: bulk packaging for the extended transportation and storage of fruits and vegetables; liners for packaging flowers; and retail packaging bags, sleeves and wraps to protect produce from the farm all the way to the end user. Contact: Peakfresh, #352-356 Richmond Road, Netley, South Australia, 5037, Australia. Tel: +61 (8) 8443 5757; Fax: +61 (8) 8443 8050.

Food containers that preserve oxygen barrier

The new REVOH technology from Winpak Portion Packaging Inc., the United States, is engineered to enhance the oxygen barrier of thermoformed containers by reducing oxygen ingress 30 to 35 per cent during the critical time when the packaging’s ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) oxygen barrier layer is most vulnerable to penetration – immediately after retort. The key to protecting this EVOH oxygen barrier – thus improving overall shelf life – lies with an improved moisture barrier in the container’s structure.

Water molecules (steam) from the retort process permeate the outer polypropylene (PP) layer and temporarily neutralize the barrier properties of EVOH, enabling more oxygen to enter the package right after retort, which negatively impacts shelf-life. It takes about 10-14 days for the recovery of the oxygen barrier properties of the EVOH layer. However, most of the oxygen enters the package in the first few days after retort and hence, the most significant impact of retort is in the first 100 to 200 hours, says Mr. Alam Shah, Winpak’s Manager of Technology. The REVOH technology protects the EVOH barrier layer from this “retort shock” by adding micron-sized minerals to the outer PP layers comprising a blend of resins and additives specifically formulated to boost the moisture barrier.

Independent testing commissioned by Winpak has shown that REVOH reduces the impact of retort shock in food packages compared with the typical PP barrier structure. Reduced moisture ingress during the retort process results in about 30-35 per cent lower post-retort oxygen transmission. Winpak claims a number of benefits for its patent-pending technology, such as longer shelf-life for the product; improved rigidity, especially at elevated temperatures; higher heat-deflection temperature for better microwave performance; good impact resistance at low temperatures; about twice the thermal conductivity of similar containers made with non-REVOH technology for efficient and uniform heating of the contents; lower environmental impact; and cost/materials savings.

The packaging that boils egg

An innovative packaging created in Russia helps consumers boil the eggs it contains, without immersing in water. The ‘Gogol Mogol’ – created by KIAN, a Russian design and branding company – appears to be a simple cardboard egg box, but when it is activated, it produces heat. The technology is similar to the one used in self-heating tins. On pulling a tab, special chemical layers – including calcium hydroxide and water – react with each other to produce heat to cook the egg. The egg is cooked in around two minutes, but the user can leave it in for longer depending on their yolk consistency preferences. This halves the conventional four minutes required to cook the egg when boiled in water.

The carton consists of an external cardboard sleeve, a chemical catalyst layer and a membrane lining, which when activated reacts with the calcium oxide underneath, and a smart material layer. The membrane separates a smart material from the catalyst. Once the tag is stretched, the membrane is removed and the catalyst and material are exposed to begin a chemical reaction that heats up the egg. The disadvantage to the product is that it can only be used once. The inventors have considered this and have crafted it from recyclable materials.

Transparent bio-film for packaging

Plastiroll, Finland, has developed a biodegradable, transparent packaging film that extends the shelf-life of fresh produce such as fruits and vegetables. The film is produced from combination of corn starch-based materials, which results in a film that forms a breathable, biodegradable membrane with good strength properties. “This is a solution that offers significant cost savings through longer shelf life, less waste and lower disposal costs,” remarks Mr. Jani Avellan, Product Development Manager. As the bio-film is biodegradable it can be easily disposed of along with food waste.

The packaging film is sealable and can be used on its own or as part of a carton box or tray. Depending on customer requirements, it can be supplied in different thickness and roll width for use in most types of packaging machinery. The performance has been rigorously tested with customers in Europe who have reported significantly increases in the shelf-life of fresh produce. This is because the packaging film helps produce an optimum balance between humidity control and permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Less energy and lower temperatures are needed during the bio-film packaging process, as the sealing temperature of bio-films is lower than of conventional plastic films. Plastiroll’s multilayer films are based on sandwiches of biomaterials with properties that can be tailored to customer requirements. Contact: Mr. Jani Avellan, Product Development Manager, Plastiroll OY, Vanha Vaasantie 13, 33470 Ylöjärvi, Finland. Tel: +358 (3) 3800 800; Fax: +358 (3) 3800 888; E-mail:

Vacuum pack for fresh foods

Wapo Corporation from Taiwan Province, China, has developed a nylon vacuum-pack solution that allows fresh foodstuff to be stored at room temperature while extending their shelf-life. Produced using materials supplied by Japan’s Unitika Ltd., the new packaging have high gas barrier properties that allow moderate oxygen transpiration so the fresh food products are not attacked by caustic gases or exposed to premature oxidation. When vacuum-sealed, the bags are resistant to puncture, water and water vapour. By reducing moisture loss, the bags also extend products’ freshness. Even if the vacuum bags are stored in refrigerated conditions, the packaging material does not turn brittle or burst from expansion after freezing, the company claims.

PGA-based bio-plastic packaging

In Finland, the VTT Technical Research Centre has developed a new technique to improve the quality of bio-based plastic packaging, which is enabling the plastic packaging industry to shift towards bio-based products, away from dependence on plastics made from petroleum. The key element of the new packaging is a polyglycolic acid (PGA) polymer, says Professor Ali Harlin from VTT’s Biotechnology and Food Research Laboratory. Prof. Harlin has developed a process that enables the production of the PGA monomer glycolic acid from bio-based materials more efficiently than ever before.

Made from sugar, PGA plastic has excellent barrier properties. As a film, it is the most efficient oxygen barrier known, and it will effectively keep food from spoiling, Prof. Harlin says. In addition to strength and heat resistance, the PGA bio-plastic also offers vapour-proof, grease-resistant and airtight packaging. PGA plastic is 20 to 30 per cent stronger than polylactic acid (PLA) – the most popular biodegradable plastic on the market – and able to withstand temperatures 20°C higher. It also breaks down more readily than PLA, but its biodegradability can be regulated as needed, explains Prof. Harlin.

New food packaging paper for dry, wet wax applications

Twin Rivers Paper Co., the United States, has launched Acadia Waxing, an optimal packaging paper for dry and wet wax applications. The new uncoated and machine-finished paper offers better absorbency for dry wax pickup and holdout for wet wax pickup, resulting in good performance for common applications such as burger, sandwich and taco wraps. Twin Rivers’ specialty packaging portfolio has a wide range of environmentally friendly options that are suitable for packaging designs. Contact: Twin Rivers Paper Co., 707 Sable Oaks Drive, Suite #010, South Portland, ME 04106, United States of America. Tel: +1 (207) 523 2350; Fax: +1 (207) 523 2392; E-mail:


Solar-powered cold food storage

According to India’s Global Cold Chain Alliance, India is second to China in a food production industry worth US$180 billion, but 30-40 per cent of harvest is wasted owing to spoilage during transportation. A partnership in the United States between University of Cincinnati (UC) and industry has produced an innovative solar chiller container and distribution plan to help reduce spoilage of harvested produce on their way to market. SolerCool, the food-storage device, uses solar panels to cool produce and preserve crops on their way to market. The university-industry partnership has also drawn up a business plan to successfully launch the innovation in India.

The new SolerCool venture has been developed as a solar generator that can store energy. Mr. Mohsen Rezayat, Chief Solutions Architect at Siemens UGS PLM Software and Adjunct Professor in UC College of Engineering and Applied Science, is primarily working on the engineering of solar panels for SolerCool. Ms. Ilse Hawkins, Adjunct Associate Professor of business law in the UC Lindner College of Business, and MBA students Ms. Ruma Dubey and Ms. Lillian Rice have taken the business plan forward and are working in partnership with SimpliCool Technologies International LLC for a cold storage business venture in India.

New era of cryogenic food processing

Because cold-temperature processing is so critical to many food processing operations, improvements in technology can make a notable impact on productivity and profits. By focusing on the specific challenges of the food industry, engineers at Linde LLC, the United States, have developed proprietary solutions that are more efficient in a number of ways, said Mr. Mark DiMaggio, Head of Food and Beverage, Linde North America. The design of Linde nitrogen impingement freezers, for example, still boasts of the highest freezing capacity per unit area of floor space on the market, he says. The Linde food team develops customized solutions based on either carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrogen, depending on which cryogen is best for the process and the plant.

Linde implemented precise crust-freezing methods using a hygienic, cryogenic (CO2) tunnel freezer to help a company increase production rate and improve the quality of deli-log slicing on a new high-speed slicer. Just the right temperature and depth of crust-freeze on the log ensures the blade gets a clean “bite” for consistent slicing, besides even stacking. Such precision can help avoid bottlenecks and product loss. Likewise, Linde has introduced a new system to individually quick-freeze diced poultry and other small or fragile items that makes existing flighted freezers obsolete. The new Cryoline® CW (CryowaveTM) freezer from Linde uses a patented rolling-wave action to keep individually quick frozen (IQF) products separate as they freeze. It can be equipped for either liquid nitrogen or CO2.

A patent-pending airflow design on the new Cryoline® XF (Crossflow) spiral freezer improves processing efficiency by 10 per cent or more compared with existing cryogenic spiral freezers. The design utilizes cryogenic gases more efficiently and chills food at a more even rate for a more consistent product quality and reduced operating costs. Contact: Ms. Amy Ficon, Corporate Communications, Linde North America, 575 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ, 07974, United States of America. Tel: +1 (908) 771 1491; Fax: +1 (908) 771 1460.

Fish and poultry processing machines

India’s Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET) has demonstrated newly invented machines – including fish descaling machine, fish processing table-cum-display unit and poultry processing table – for poultry and fish retailers at its campus. In India, majority of fish and poultry products, more than 90 per cent, are consumed without much processing. “Most of the cutting of meat is done openly and using unhygienic instruments and platform, the present condition is unfavourable for both retailers as well as consumers,” said Mr. Nilesh Gaikwad, Scientist, CIPHET, who along with Mr. Tanbir Ahmed developed a complete package of technologies for providing hygienic, safe and affordable processing environment for small and medium retailers. The fish descaling machine could remove the scales in less than 40 seconds as compared with conventional unsafe hand tool that takes more than two minutes. CIPHET has also developed stainless steel food-grade poultry and fish processing tables for making processing fast, very safe and screened from public view.

Technology for frying food with minimal oil

Technology developed by a food scientist at Purdue University, the United States, could cook food that retains its “fried” flavour and consistency and has up to 50 per cent less fat and fewer calories than food fried using conventional methods. The radiant fryer was developed by Mr. Kevin M. Keener, professor of food science in the College of Agriculture. It uses energy similar to sunlight to cook pre-formed food like chicken patties, hash browns and hamburgers. Food is placed in wire trays that travel down a conveyor belt with radiant energy elements on either side. Mr. Keener said many foods sold at fast-food restaurants are partially cooked at a factory and quickly frozen.

Restaurant workers typically use an oil immersion fryer to finish the process. “The radiant fryer does not require additional oil to finish the process, which means the food that it cooks could have 30 to 50 per cent less oil than food cooked with traditional frying,” he said. The food could be more appealing to consumers because the taste would be more of the ingredients and less of the oil. The radiant fryer improves upon oil immersion fryers in other ways too, Mr. Keener said. “Because the amount of energy used to fry foods can be adjusted, the cooking time could be 30 per cent faster than the cook time with an oil immersion fryer,” he added. Radiant fryer is also safer as there is little to no oil to handle. Contact: Mr. Jon Gortat, Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2009, United States of America. Tel: +1 (765) 588 3485; E-mail:

Small-scale pasta press extruders

The Italian food machinery company Pama Parsi Macchine srl. manufactures a range of press extruders for producing pasta. The company’s small-scale pasta press extruders are ideal for small pasta factories, restaurants and institutions, which want to produce different kinds of pasta, even in small batches. The model P/10 extruder can produce about 10 kg per hour of pasta sheets, or pasta in other shapes using dies. The 1 kW model comes with one 8 kg vat mixer, a cutter for short cuts, water cooling system on the extruder head, one die for sheet pasta (other dies optional) and a safety guard.

The model P/30 extruding machine can produce pasta in sheets (or in other shapes, with change of dies), which can be subsequently fed into machines that make ravioli, cappelletti and agnolotti. The machine has hourly production capacity of 25 kg of sheet pasta (280 mm width). It is equipped with a cutter for short cuts, water cooling system on the extruder head, one die for sheet of pasta and a safety guard. The mixer capacity is 16 kg per batch.

P/60 is a larger model that has a production capacity of 50 kg/hour of sheet pasta, which can be subsequently utilized in machines that make ravioli, cappelletti and agnolotti. This 2.5 kW extruder weighs about 300 kg and comes with all standard equipment. Contact: Pama Parsi Macchine srl., Via Maremmana III, n. 55 - 00030 San Cesareo, Rome, Italy. Tel: +39 (6) 958 7205, 957 0662; Fax: +39 (6) 9588550.

Supercritical fluid extractor

Supercritical Fluid Technologies, the United States, has introduced a pilot-scale supercritical extractor, the SFT-NPX-10, to simplify the extraction of a large variety of natural products, and to facilitate the transition from laboratory scale equipment to production systems. The extractor is designed to perform supercritical fluid extractions in either single or dual 10 litre sample vessels with single or dual separators, resulting in maximum efficiency. A mass flow meter guarantees precise mass flow measurement. A pneumatic carbon dioxide (CO2) pump with an integral pre-chiller is used to maximize pumping efficiency. A programmable controller is available as an upgrade for automated regulation of temperature, pressure and process cycles.

Using supercritical CO2 to perform extractions on botanicals, herbs, spices and other natural product materials has significant benefits over the use of traditional liquid solvents. While the supercritical fluid has many of the same characteristics of a liquid solvent, it adds the benefits of high diffusivity and pressure-tunable solvency. Further, the distillation step is not needed since, upon dropping pressure, the CO2 becomes a gas. The material extracted is in its pure, natural state. As the solvency power of the fluid is pressure-dependent, it is possible to “fractionate” to get multiple compositions from a single raw material, facilitating some separations that are otherwise difficult to perform by traditional methods.


Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals

This publication provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques in food encapsulation and delivery systems. Part one gives an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, discussing the challenges in system development and analysis of interaction with the human gastrointestinal tract. Processing technologies for encapsulation and delivery systems are the focus of part two. Part three examines the physico-chemical approaches to the production of encapsulation and delivery systems. The last part reviews characterization and applications of delivery systems, providing industry perspectives on flavour, fish oil, iron micronutrient and probiotic delivery systems. Distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors make the publication an authoritative guide for both industry and academic researchers interested in the subject.

Contact: Woodhead Publishing Ltd., 80 High Street, Sawston, Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1223) 499140 Fax: +44 (1223) 832819; E-mail:

Guide to Food Labelling and Compositional Requirements in India

This guide is intended to assist companies selling products in the Indian market as well as exporters, importers, distributors and other food companies with an interest in selling foods in India, to develop a basic understanding of the main statutory instruments applicable and the controls that the national authorities apply. The book covers: Structure of food legislation; Authorities responsible for legislation-making and controls; Labelling provisions in place; and Details on compositional requirements for non-alcoholic beverages, sugar and chocolate confectionery, and bakery products. The updated guide includes the newly established genetically modified food labelling requirements, and the labelling requirements for multi-pack products and wholesale products.

Contact: Leatherhead Food International Ltd., Randalls Way, off Randalls Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT22 7RY, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (1372) 376 761; Fax: +44 (1372) 386 228; E-mail:


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