VATIS Update Food Processing . Oct-Dec 2015

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Food Processing Oct-Dec 2015

ISSN: 0971-5649

VATIS Update Food Processing is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Food Processing. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Sri Lanka to implement food safety policy

In a press release Dr. Ilmi G. N. Hewajulige, at Food Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute, Sri Lanka, announced that Food Safety Policy will be implemented soon in Sri Lanka. “The Food Safety Policy is being drafted at present. It will be implemented soon.” Farmers are advised to stop using insecticides 14 days prior to harvesting. Although new laws are introduced to ban some items, some would be still freely available in the market.

The Consumer Affairs Authority (CAA) Information Director Chandrika Tilakaratne said sometimes traders sell used cooking oil and expired food items to large hotels. Drinking water bottles are refilled with tap water. Sprats are being fumigated. Coriander is imported to Sri Lanka after extracting its oil. He added that certain types of plants such as Kohila (Lacia Aculeata) absorbs metal which can be poisonous. Potatoes which are green in colour can also be poisonous.

Sri Lanka has the highest number of deaths due to poisoning in South East Asia. Snake bites are the common type of poisoning in Sri Lanka. The highest number of poisoning incidents are reported from homes. The highest number of victims are children between one and five years of age. Domestic poisoning incidents are on the rise. Common poisons are those used to kill rats, mosquito coils and toilet cleaners.

China beefs up food safety law

China has implemented a tougher Food Safety Law that came into effect on October 1. In April, the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress (NPC), the country’s top legislature, adopted an amendment to the 2009 Food Safety Law with the heaviest civil, administrative and criminal penalties yet for offenders and their supervisors. According to Guo Xiaoguang, at China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA), the CFDA worked with a dozen agencies, including financial institutions, taxation and fiscal departments, on dealing with serious food safety violators.

However, enterprises that violate the revised law may face restrictions on loans, taxation, bidding and land use. The CFDA would provide bigger rewards to whistleblowers. “We encourage tip-offs from the public and food industry associations,” said Hua Jingfeng, at the Ministry of Public Security. He said the ministry wants trained police specialized in food crime and so far 21 provincial public security departments have set up food safety teams.

Philippines to develop 2,000 new food products

The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), the Philippines, is eyeing to develop 2,000 new food products by 2016 through the establishment of Food Innovation Centers (FICs) in every region, which will complement the creativity of micro, small and medium entrepreneurs (MSMEs). DOST Secretary Mario Montejo said that eight centers have already been established in different parts of the country. The government is optimistic to complete the project within the year.

The national government will invest PHP6 million for each facility through the provision of five basic processing equipments namely: water retorts, vacuum fryer, spray dryer, freeze dryer and vacuum sealer.

“Our food products in the market have been there for decades. Compare to Thailand, they’re developing 4,000 food products every year. The two countries are similar since people are very creative and both have rich resources. We just need to make the technology available to our MSMEs,” said Montejo.

The center will be working toward the innovation, introduction, and improvement of products processes. While working on new edge technologies the center will also tackle on improving old products. Research and development activities are centered on process and product innovation, new product development, standardization, and conversion of indigenous materials to high value food products. These can generate employment and this is inclusive growth. All of these are very possible with available resources, technical know-how, creative MSMEs and technology.

Philippines focuses facilitating food MSMEs

The Philippine government aims to facilitate micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in food processing and agribusiness to achieve inclusive growth. At the 22nd Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) SME Ministerial Meeting Jerry Clavesillas said the government should make interventions in helping MSMEs in food processing and agribusiness sectors to participate in the global value chain. “Why focus on food processing? Because more than 60 percent of our MSMEs are in the processed food [business]. We have already been impacting about 60 percent of the total MSMEs in the country including their workers, and other dependents of this particular sector,” said Clavesillas.

According to Clavesillas, since the Philippines is an “agriculture economy,” MSMEs in agribusiness should be provided with assistance for them to comply with the global standards. “There are so many things that they have to comply with now the market is becoming more selective. For agriculture products now, the preference of the market is organic productions. Facilitating MSMEs for them to meet the global market’s requirement will empower more MSMEs to participate in the global value chain and help the country to achieve inclusive growth.,” added Clavesillas.

India to set up milk quality test equipment

Keeping in view the reports about milk adulteration and subsequent directions from the Supreme Court, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has decided to facilitate food business operators (FBOs) from the milk trade in setting up infrastructure for milk testing at their premises. In this regard, a circular has been issued by FSSAI, which has directed vendors to install such infrastructure to enable the consumer, bulk or individual, to test the milk for any kind of adulteration.

The circular said, “Concerns has been raised time to time about quality of milk and milk products sold, particularly in festival time. The FSSAI, therefore has decided to facilitate setting up of infrastructural facilities to enable the customers, bulk and individual to test these products.” The aim is to give easy access to consumers to the testing equipment so that the safety and quality of the milk can be ensured at the shop. With regards to that the apex food regulator has sought information regarding equipments for milk testing, conventional and rapid, to test quality of milk and milk products.

The equipments found suitable will be put on demonstration before the consumers and regulatory officers. Metropolitan cities will be the first to have the mechanism in place, where milk outlets are present. The FSSAI aims at setting up of the facilities during the current festive season. It is pertinent to mention here that during the festive season, the quality related to milk and milk products always remains a matter of concern while FSSAI feels that this setup will help the shop-owners and others to establish their credibility.

Street food safety improved in Viet Nam

According to a recent review of a pilot programme that was implemented two years ago in Viet Nam to encourage more hygienic street food options in 29 districts and towns, have spurred positive changes in the food service quality. The initiative, launched by the municipal health department, will provide additional training to vendors to teach them about food safety and hygiene regulations. If their food stalls comply with the regulations, they will be granted food safety certificates. A series of fast food carts and shops have been set up along the participating streets over the past two years.

The food vendors were given disposable gloves and medical checks-up. The local authorities have also opened training courses to raise awareness among vendors, consumers and food management officers on food safety and hygiene. The awareness campaign has included direct communication, radio broadcasts and information provided during the action month on food safety and hygiene. The number of managers in the city who are knowledgeable about food safety regulations has reached 86 per cent, up from 59.1 per cent prior to the project’s implementation.

The number of consumers who understand and follow food safety criteria has risen from 72.6 per cent to 74 per cent, while the same criteria for food vendors has risen sharply from 58 per cent to 75 percent. While checking food stalls on streets participating in the pilot programme, inspectors found violations such as raw ingredients with unclear origins. The effort to issue food safety certificates still remains slow. The model is not easily implemented in a crowded city like Ha Noi, experts said. Hong Duc Hanh, at the city’s health department, said violating stalls would not only be warned, but also handed strict punishments to ensure the effectiveness of the initiative.


ISO/IEC approves two traceability standards

The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) have approved two supply chain visibility standards that enable farm-to-fork traceability. Australia based GS1’s Electronic Product Code Information Services (EPCIS) is an open standard which allows businesses to capture and share information about the movement and status of products, logistics units and other assets in the supply chain. Its companion standard, the Core Business Vocabulary (CBV), defines a standardised vocabulary, ensuring that all trading partners exchanging supply chain visibility data have a common and consistent understanding of the business meaning of that information.

EPCIS is deployed in sectors such as transport and logistics and fresh foods to expand visibility and improve efficiency in areas ranging from inventory management to consumer safety. The versatility of EPCIS has helped drive adoption of the standard, which allows for industry-specific enhancements and can be implemented with a number of different data carriers, including GS1 barcodes and EPC/RFID tags.

The ability to capture information about the transformation of meat, fish, produce and upstream ingredients makes EPCIS an enabler of farm-to-fork traceability. The standard can also be leveraged to reduce opportunities for undetected manipulation or counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products. The new ISO/IEC international designation will enable government agencies and regulated sectors to reference the standard. It also reinforces the implementation of the standard in commercial software solutions and hence its deployment across multiple sectors.

India extends FBOs registration date

The Union ministry of health has extended the deadline for obtaining licence and securing registration by food business operators (FBOs) under the Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Business) Regulations, 2011 till February 4, 2016. In this regard, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has issued a notification stating that the extension has been effected following numerous representations by FBOs to the food regulator. The latest extension is the sixth since the implementation of Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, in the country on August 5, 2011.

The first extension was given on August 4, 2012, for six months till Feb 4, 2013. It was followed by another extension for one year till Feb 4, 2014, the next extension was till August 4, 2014, then Feb 4, 2015 and lastly till August 4, 2015. Interestingly, most industry associations such as CAIT (Confederation of All India Traders) and Karaikudi Bakery Owners Association, Tamil Nadu, were confident of getting an extension looking at the rate of licensing and registration completed so far in the country, which had witnessed just five per cent increase in last six months.

CAIT, apex body of the trading community, and other trade organisations of the country have hailed the decision. According to CAIT, more than three crore traders engaged in food business across the country shall be benefited by the extension of the date. It is noteworthy that CAIT has been strongly lobbying for deferment of the Act for the last four years on account of many impracticable provisions of the FSS Act. Earlier, CAIT had alleged that the Act was brought to facilitate MNCs to control and dominate the food business in India.

New food safety law takes effect in China

China’s new Food Safety Law (FSL) has come into effect from Oct.1, with the goal of overhauling the country’s food standards. On April 24, 2015, in response to several high-profile food safety scandals and the need to harmonize with the global practice of food safety management, China passed sweeping amendments to its FSL. The FSL effective date has now arrived and, therefore, it is important to be aware that a number of significant changes have been made to China’s food regulations and new mechanisms have been established to deepen the reforms.

As the fundamental law regulating food safety in China, the revised FSL builds up the basic legal framework for food safety supervision and management; however, like most framework documents, it is short on detail. To put some meat on its bones, in the past few months, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC), China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ), along with other administrative agencies, published several important regulations and national food safety standards.


New technology for food safety industry

A team of researchers at Purdue University, the United States, has developed a new technology for quality control facilities in the food industry and the federal government, to speed up the process of detecting pathogens like salmonella in fruits, vegetables, meat and other food. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), an estimated one in six Americans is sickened by foodborne illnesses annually, resulting in about 3,000 deaths. Salmonella is the leading cause of deaths and hospitalizations related to foodborne illness, estimated to cause 380 deaths and 19,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year.

Professor Michael Ladisch, led a team that created a method to process food samples much faster than traditional methods. In July, the technology won the grand prize in the 2014 FDA Food Safety Challenge. The team received $300,000 in prize money to further develop the technology. Ladisch said the detection of food pathogens, or microorganisms that cause food-based illness, in the U.S. is excellent. “The challenge they now face is being able to test more samples more quickly, so that the time between when a food pathogen might be present and when it is detected would be shortened. Our technology makes it possible to process the samples more quickly, in hours instead of days,” said Ladisch.

The technology was developed through a grant from the USDA’s Office of Scientific Quality Review, USDA Hatch funds and industrial funding. “Microfiltration has been around more than 30 years, first used for filtering water and developed over the years for food materials. But the membrane fouls very quickly, which has been an impediment to use. We’ve improved the use and enabled rapid filtration with actual food extracts rather than needing microorganisms to buffer,” added Ladisch.

Innovative method to detect pathogens in food

A Mexican researcher Yadira Tejeda, at the University of Western Ontario, in the province of Ontario in the Canadian city London, has developed a method for detecting contamination of meat products with Escherichia coli-O157, a bacterium that causes intestinal infection, in less than 24 hours. The current process to detect food-borne pathogens such as E. coli-O157 is through cultures, which require a minimum of 48 hours to determine the presence of a harmful organism. That time represents a barrier to commercial producers of meat because one-third of the shelf life of the products is wasted awaiting results.

However, with her novel process, a quick sampling of the products is possible. This method is similar to a pregnancy test, in which the appearance of one line indicates a negative result and two lines indicates positive. Thus, attention is given only to products with an affirmative result. “The contamination by E. coli O157 is possible because it is a bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and, while not harmful to the animals, there is a high risk of contaminating the meat when the animal is sacrificed.”

Tejeda explained that according to the law, it is necessary to test for absence of E. coli O157 before releasing products to the market. For example, in Alberta, Canada, there was the case of the company XL Foods, which had to reclaim meat products that were contaminated with the bacteria. This problem cost millions of dollars in losses to the company. The researcher focuses on E. coli-O157, while other colleagues study pathogens such as Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, because the idea is to have a wide range of diagnostic methods to identify various microorganisms, benefiting the food industry.

New process of disinfecting greens

A study presented at the American Chemical Society’s 250th National Meeting & Exposition has shown that a new, easy-to-implement method to disinfect spinach and other leafy greens during processing may eliminate or reduce incidences of foodborne outbreaks. Greens are washed by commercial processes before they head to the grocery store. But these methods, which can include water and bleach rinses or irradiation, are not completely effective, according to Nichola Kinsinger, University of California (UC), the United States. Scientists have estimated that 99% of foodborne illnesses from leafy greens can be traced back to disinfection issues. As a result, they searched and developed a different approach to attacking the bacteria, most notably E. coli.

Using a parallel-plate flow chamber system, the researchers tested the real-time attachment and detachment of bacteria to the outer layer of spinach leaves. At low bleach concentrations, the bacteria fell off the leaves, but remained alive. At the higher concentrations used commercially, however, all of the bacteria were killed. A spinach leaf is not perfectly smooth, so the team modeled how the bleach would move across the surface of a spinach leaf, taking its bumps and grooves into account. The model revealed that the concentrations of bleach on leaves may not be consistent. “We found that because of the topology of the spinach leaf, nearly 15% of the surface may ‘see’ a bleach concentration that is 1,000-times less than that of the rinse solution,” said Kinsinger.

To reduce that risk, the researchers are optimizing an inexpensive titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst that companies could add to the rinse water or use to coat equipment surfaces that come into contact with the leaves as they are processed. When TiO2 absorbs light, it produces a strong oxidant that kills bacteria. The scientists now plan to conduct more studies on the photocatalyst, including examining a broader range of foods, engineered surfaces, and pathogens.

Novel grazing indicator

Food testing company Qlip, Netherlands, has developed a novel grazing indicator based on milk samples and grazing data, which can show whether a sample of milk was produced by free roaming cows. Qlip’s laboratory test milk to determine whether or not the supplier’s cows are spending enough time grazing. According to Qlip, modern farming practices making it impractical to allow cows to graze from spring until fall, meaning that the indicator could offer a valuable new method for monitoring and safeguarding grazing levels.

The laboratory analyses more than 50,000 raw milk samples every day by means of infrared technology, “resulting in a unique spectrum for every milk sample, supplying information about that specific composition of the milk”. The analyses are used by dairy companies for payment purposes to the farmers which get paid for their fresh milk and for dairy herd improvement programs, and are already routinely analysed for quality and composition. “The spectra and models can also be used for the development of other indicators.

Chemical-free process for pasteurizing almonds

A technical review panel of the Almond Board of California has given its seal of approval to another chemical-free process for pasteurizing almonds. The technology being marketed by RF Biocidics, the United States, uses radio frequency waves to zap pathogens, insects, and mold on almonds and other foods instead of using chemicals or steam. The process does not alter the taste or nutrient content, according to the company. The patented food safety process was developed at the University of California, the United States. “I can tell you within the industry, this was a very important milestone. Our process is non-chemical, and that’s a huge breakthrough,” said Craig Powell, at RF Biocidics.

Following Salmonella outbreaks in 2001 and 2004, nearly all almonds marketed in the United States must be pasteurized, regardless of whether they’re conventionally or organically grown. The chemical process uses propylene oxide (PPO), which can’t be used on organic almonds. Steam processes are used for blanching as well as pasteurizing almonds, explained Tim Birmingham, director of quality assurance and industry services for the Almond Board in Modesto. An infrared heat process has also been developed in recent years.

New system to detect metallic contaminants

Researchers at the Department of Environmental and Life Sciences at Toyohashi Tech, Japan, have developed a system to detect small metallic contaminants via magnetisation. The detection system uses three high-Tc RF superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which record the remnant magnetic field of a contaminant. SQUID is a high-sensitivity magnetic sensor based on the superconductivity phenomenon.

In the process, a strong magnetic field is applied to food to magnetise the metal fragments inside, and subsequently, these metals, if they are contained in the food, can be detected by sensing their magnetic fields using the SQUID sensors. The method is safe and provides a high resolution. Professor Tanaka, whose team has developed the method, said the system permits contaminant detection in a food package with a height of 100 mm. In experiments, the developed system was able to clearly detect a steel ball with a diameter as small as 0.3 mm. The system was robust and not affected by electromagnetic waves from nearby mobile phones or from the motion of nearby steel objects.


Scientists discover slow-melting ice cream process

Scientists from Universities of Edinburgh and Dundee, Scotland, have developed a new ingredient for ice-cream lovers so that they can enjoy their treats longer before it melts. A naturally occurring protein can be used to create ice cream which stays frozen for longer in hot weather. The scientists estimate that the slow-melting product could become available in three to five years. The development could also allow products to be made with lower levels of saturated fat and fewer calories.

Scientists discovered that the protein, known as BsIA, works by binding together the air, fat and water in ice cream. It is also said to prevent gritty ice crystals from forming – ensuring a fine, smooth texture. “It’s not completely non-melting because you do want your ice cream to be cold. It will melt eventually but hopefully by keeping it stable for longer it will stop the drips,” said Cait MacPhee, at University of Edinburgh. The team developed a method of producing the protein – which occurs naturally in some foods as friendly bacteria.

It works by keeping oil and water mixed together, stops air from escaping and coats the ice crystals in ice cream which stops them from melting so quickly. “This is a natural protein already in the food chain. It’s already used to ferment some foods so its a natural product rather than being a ‘Frankenstein’ food,” added MacPhee. The researchers believe using the ingredient could benefit manufacturers too as it can be processed without impacting on performance and can be produced from sustainable raw materials.

Researchers develop new nanostructured system

Researchers at the National University of Mexico (UNAM) have developed a nanostructured system capable of protecting the active compounds of juices and nutritional supplements from high temperatures during the pasteurization process, in order to retain their nutritional properties. “The benefits of the development called “Nanostructured systems as thermal protectors of functional ingredients in foods” are maintaining the natural compounds, “and what you read on the label is really present during the storage time of the product before its expiration date,” said Maria de la Luz Zambrano Zaragoza, at UNAM.

The research began in 2007 with the study of beta-carotene, a pigment found in plants, fruits and vegetables that can be used as an antioxidant. The aim was to analyze if by placing a protective layer surrounding the beta-carotene, it lost less nutritional properties during pasteurization; so the researchers designed nanocapsules measuring less than 500 nanometers, and made a gum-like model that has a liquid center. These nanocapsules would be added to the commercial drink. The consumption of the system designed in the Laboratory of Transformation and Emerging Technologies in Food has no contraindications, because it prevents interaction with our cellular system. Besides being composed of a biodegradable polymer, it becomes a lactic acid and can easily be discarded.

In addition to improving retention of betacarotene in thermal processes, the use of nanocapsules can be applied to other antioxidants in processes such as sterilization or UHT. The research received the second place in the award of the “Programme for the Promotion of Patenting and Innovation” (PROFOPI 2014-2015) in Mexico, which aims to promote the culture of industrial property in the university. This scientific development is in the process of patenting. The benefit obtained by using the nanostructured food system is less addition of active substances usually required during production, so the storage means less product degradation by the effect of environmental conditions.

Scientists invent healthy chocolate

Scientists at Kuka Xoco, the United States, a chocolate company specialising in herbal technologies claim to have developed the “medicinal” chocolate, which contains only 35 per cent fat. Cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate, contains a variety of antioxidants and minerals, which perform health benefits such as protecting the nervous system, reducing stroke risk and lowering blood pressure. However, cacao is extremely bitter meaning many chocolate companies sweeten their products with fat and sugar, overriding cacao’s health benefits.

Kuka Xoco, have discovered a new de-bittering agent in the form of a little-used herb from the Andean region of Bolivia and Peru. Using micrograms of the plant extract can completely de-bitter large amounts of unsweetened cacao, the company have claimed, developing a prototype with only 35 per cent sugar and fat. “This eliminates the need for sugar, sweeteners and much of the fat in chocolate, unleashing the medical benefits of cacao,” said Gregory Aharonian, at Kuka Xoco. The company’s long-term goal is to develop chocolate with just 10 per cent of fat and sugar.

If the unhealthy ingredients are removed from chocolate, it could be eaten medicinally, Mr Aharonian added. The firm argues that sugar is the “next nicotine”. Artificial sweeteners, they add, have been disastrous because they lead to weight gain and other problematic health complications. The chocolate industry could double its annual profits if it also became a health food industry by removing as much fat and sugar from its products as possible.

Potato starch based solution for cheese

Potato Starch manufacturer KMC, Denmark, has developed new CheeseMaker solutions for cheese lovers that cannot eat cheese and have to look for vegan options to add a savory note to their food. Based on potato starch and naturally GMO-free and non-allergenic, consumers can make healthy alternatives for grated, shredded and sliced cheese. Recent global product launched activity reinforces the growing popularity of new product development on a vegan platform. Innova Market Insights reported a 60% increase in product launches with a vegan claim in 2013 from 2012, and a further 52% increase in 2014 from 2013, albeit from a small base.

Dairy proteins build texture in cheese. They form a protein network and they emulsify fat. The new and innovative potato-based starch solutions that KMC has developed in their Application Centre in Denmark can match the functional properties of dairy proteins. This will result in imitation cheese that has a cheese-like appearance and texture. The CheeseMaker CF series contains products for semi-hard block cheese, such as pizza cheese or sliced cheese. Use the CheeseMaker CF75 for its excellent melting characteristics. It can make cheese shreds for gratins or pizza as an alternative to a table cheese or melt it on a sandwich. Vegan cheese products made with CheeseMaker CF75 have an elastic and cheese-like texture.

CheeseMaker solutions are potato-based, which guarantees a neutral taste and a white color. This makes it easy to add additional flavor and color. Some ingredients used in vegan cheese can have very characteristic flavors that are not associated with dairy. As potato starch does not have a distinct flavor, there is no need for masking any off-taste, which will make it easier to add exactly the right cheese flavor. Dairy-free and vegan cheese products made with the CheeseMaker CF series contain only few ingredients. The lean label and the non-allergenic and GMO-free status of potato starch can make these products of interest for all health-oriented consumers.

Researchers develop avocado powder for food

The Group Functional Food Research (GAF) from National University, Colombia, in support of the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Colciencias), has been working in the industrial production of food from the Hass avocado. According to the director of GAF, Misael Cortes, the intention is to develop “an avocado base powder, avocado powder with added calcium, iron and vitamins A and D, guacamole powder and seasonings.” The research, foresees the development of products from the avocado powder and an implementation phase in which the “raw avocado powder base materials and the avocado powder with added active components will be used and the dressings will be developed.

According to Cortes, the avocado base powder would be an ingredient that could be used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical sectors, and it would be a very stable product that would have the great advantage of prolonging the fruit’s shelf life when stored under proper conditions. Although the avocado powder has been developed in countries like Mexico, the investigation, scheduled for three years, was innovating because it was developing avocado powder with active components as well as guacamole and dressings. The researcher stated that the avocado powder with active ingredients, such as iron, calcium and vitamins, “might help mitigate the nutritional deficiencies of the Colombian people.”


Super-chilling extends product shelf-life

A research by Campden BRI, the United Kingdom, has shown that super-chilling can safely extend the shelf-life of chilled foods without any loss of sensory quality. Super-chilling reduces the temperature of food products to around -2°C so they become partially frozen. Chilled products are stored at that temperature until being released into the cold chain. Experiments on cook-chill prawns revealed that super-chilling can increase product shelf-life up to 22 days – a 120% increase over the typical 10-day shelf-life. The researchers also looked at the effects of super-chilling on poultry and gammon.

“Super-chilling is not a novel technique. It is used on an ad hoc basis to build stock in times of high demand such as Christmas or a ‘barbecue’ weekend. Up until now there has been little data to support its use more widely and little information on the impact of its wider use on product safety. Our research shows that it can be used to extend shelf-life without compromising the quality or safety of these products,” said Greg Jones at Campden BRI.

In addition to shelf-life, the research has demonstrated that super-chilling can reduce energy use and waste. Campden BRI calculated the energy required to produce and distribute both super-chilled and conventionally chilled farmed salmon. Although super-chilling the fish requires more energy during manufacture, more fish can be packed into each container because super-chilling negates the need for ice during transportation. The extra energy used to super-chill rather than chill was equaled in fuel savings by the time the fish had been transported the 477 km from Stornoway to Glasgow.

New process extends apple's shelf-life

Scientists from University of Cartagena, Spain, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, and University of Tasmania, Australia, have investigated whether the hot water treatment (HWT) could be recommended as a method in combination with CaAsc dips to help maintain the sensory quality of fresh-cut apples and to extend the shelf-life. For the study, fresh-cut ‘Braeburn’ apple slices were dipped into cold water (4°C for 2 min) or hot water (HWT, 48°C or 55°C for 2 min) followed by dips into 0 or 6% w/v aqueous calcium ascorbate (CaAsc, 2 min, 0°C) and stored in air up to 28 d at 4°C. Microbial counts, changes in browning and sensory acceptance were measured to indicate changes in quality.

CaAsc dips had a strong impact reducing the browning through increasing the flesh luminosity and hue angle. The use of 6% CaAsc in fresh-cut apples extended the shelf-life from less than 7 days to 14 days. -Immediately after CaAsc treatment, ascorbic acid content (AA) content was 5 fold higher (0.25–1.25 g/kg) than those not dipped into CaAsc. However, the combination of HWT treatments and CaAsc dips led to seven fold increased levels of AA inside the apple tissue (0.25–1.85 g/kg) and consequently increased the antioxidant activity.

HWT did not increase the AA content when not combined with CaAsc dips. The HWT followed by CaAsc dip extended the shelf-life to 21 days compared to 14 days for samples not heated but only dipped into CaAsc. Shelf-life was ultimately limited by sensory quality. Scientists conclude that the combination of HWT at 48°C for 2 min followed by 6% CaAsc dip was the best for preserving the eating quality of apple slices and extending the shelf-life from 14 d to up to 21 d at 4°C. HWT for 2 min at 48°C was preferable to 55°C with no significant benefit of the higher temperature that would also have increased energy cost and could induce a superficial damage in the apple flesh.

Silver nanoparticles extend shelf-life of milk

Brazilian agribusiness Agrindus, has increased the shelf-life of grade A pasteurised fresh whole milk from seven to 15 days by incorporating silver-based nanoparticles with bactericidal, antimicrobial and self-sterilising properties into the rigid plastic bottles used as packaging for the milk. The technology has been developed by Nanox, a spinoff from the Center for Research and Development of Functional Materials, one of the Research, Innovation and Dissemination Centers supported by São Paulo Research Foundation.

Silica ceramic particles are first coated with silver nanoparticles, which is reported to have a synergistic effect, with the silica boosting the antimicrobial properties of the silver. The resultant powder is incorporated into the liquid polyethylene preform that is used to make plastic bottles by blow or injection moulding. According to Agrindus, the particles are inert so there is no risk of their detaching from the packaging and coming into contact with the milk. The material’s performance in extending the shelf-life of fresh milk was tested over a period of one year by Agrindus, Nanox and independent laboratories. Shelf-life extension has now been certified and the company has embarked on bringing the material to market.

The new material is also being tested by two other dairies that distribute fresh milk in plastic bottles in São Paulo and Minas Gerais and by dairies in southern Brazil that sell fresh milk in flexible plastic packaging. The particles can also be used to make milk bags, which apparently extend shelf-life from four to 10 days. Nanox is planning to market the product in Europe and the United States, where much larger volumes of fresh milk are consumed than in Brazil. It won approval in 2013 from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) to market the bactericidal material for use in food packaging. Doubling the shelf-life of whole milk offers significant benefits in terms of logistics, storage, quality, food safety and reducing wastage.

Edible coating extends strawberry shelf-life

Scientists at the University San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico, have developed an edible coating made from pectin that preserves strawberries for longer without affecting their taste. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, over 4.5 million tons (4 million tonnes) of strawberries are cultivated each year, with the main producers in the United States, Turkey, Spain, Egypt, and Mexico. The trouble is that, though the plants are tough, the soft fruits are very perishable, susceptible to bruising, and require a lot of special care. During harvest time, the fields need picking every three days and the fruit needs to be rushed from the field and cooled down with fans.

For shipping fresh strawberries, the fruit must be quickly and carefully cooled to 32° F (0° C), which is cold enough to preserve them, but just warm enough to prevent ice crystals from turning them into mush. Even then, the shipping containers must be specially packed to keep the temperature stable while preventing the fruit boxes from coming into contact with walls, floors, or ceilings of the transport. Even then, the last leg from market to dinner table is something of a sprint. The team’s answer to this situation was to create an Edible Active Coating (EAC) designed to improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of strawberries.

The coating is based on pectin, which is a constituent of many fruit and vegetable cell walls. This was combined with chitosan, which is an antifungal compound derived from crustacean shells and the key ingredient in a spray-on coating for bananas, pullulan for extracellular support, and sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. The strawberries were washed and disinfected, then dipped into the coating before being packed and stored at a temperature of 4° C. The team found that compared to a control group of strawberries, the coating preserved, or even improved, the color, flavor, and texture of the fruit. In addition, the coating protected the strawberries longer from microbial growths, and the acidity was unaffected.

New anti-browning formula to enhance shelf-life

After more than 400 tests and four years of research, California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), the United States, has developed a new method to prevent browning and reduce the growth of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds as well. Dr. Wyatt Brown and his team in Cal Poly’s Horticulture & Crop Science Department in the College of Agriculture, Food & Environmental Sciences created a multi-functional formula as an alternative to current anti-browning methods that only focus on enhancing the aesthetic quality of fruits and vegetables.

Though the formula proved effective for various types of sliced fruits and vegetables, the researchers discovered that when applied to pre-cut Granny Smith and Fuji apples, the composition prevented browning and the growth of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, and molds for aminimum period of 21 days. Cal Poly also states that special packaging is not required to utilize the formula. The formula also does not alter the nature of an organic, non-GMO, or GMO produce item. The formula utilizes a combination of calcium ascorbate, calcium propionate, and calcium chloride toimprove the shelf-life of fresh produce items.

Cal Poly was recently granted a United States patentin June 2015 (U.S. Patent Number 9,044,045) for the anti-browning/antimicrobial composition. According to the patent, the desire to develop such a formula was motivated by a need for “new compositions and methods for preventing browning and microbial growth in food products with low cost and high effectiveness.” Cal Poly is currently seeking licensees to commercialize the formula.


Bottled sugarcane juice

The Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), India, is in advanced stages of filing patent for bottled sugarcane juice, for which it has developed preservation and packaging technologies. According to Mr. G. Venkateswaran, chief scientist at the CFTRI, with value-addition being done at the cane-crushing stage itself with use of permitted chemicals, the bottled juice will be fit for consumption for six to eight months from the date of manufacture. “Spices like ginger and cardamom would be added at the time of crushing, along with some preservatives, to enhance the shelf-life of the product for up to six months,” said Venkateswaran.

Since the presence of yeast in the juice causes quick fermentation, it cannot be stored for long. By giving a distinct flavour and adding chemicals before the quality of the juice starts declining, its shelf-life can be improved by a large measure. The National Research Centre on Meat (NRCM), India, is developing a technology named Retort Processing (RP), which is aimed at retaining the freshness of Hyderabad’s famous delicacy Haleem for over a month. It is normally not stored owing to its perishable nature. According to NRCM Director V.V. Kulkarni, RP technology (defined as ‘a type of food packaging made from a laminate of flexible plastic and metal foils that keeps the food/drink sterile for a long time’) will keep the stew fresh for up to two months.

Researchers develop healthy beverage index

Researchers at Virginia Tech University (VTU), the United States, have developed a new scoring method for assessing beverage intake, the Healthy Beverage Index (HBI). They found that higher HBI scores were associated with more favorable lipid profiles, decreased risk of hypertension; and, among men, better C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Water consumption is associated with numerous health benefits and beverage recommendations exist, but few have evaluated overall beverage intake quality. Beverage intake guidelines have been suggested and although the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines recommend “drinking water instead of sugary drinks,” no tools existed that measure overall beverage intake quality.

In a report published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics they describe how this tool can be used to more accurately evaluate dietary consumption of all types of fluids. “A Healthy Beverage Index (HBI), similar to the Healthy Eating Index, could be used to evaluate overall beverage intake quality and to determine if improvements in beverage intake patterns are associated with improvements in health,” explained Kiyah J. Duffey, at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA. “A great deal of attention has been directed at sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, and a broader focus beyond just SSBs is needed.”

Duffey and co-investigator Brenda M. Davy, developed the HBI, a 10-item scoring index that captures total energy from beverages, total fluid requirements, and recommended limits for beverage subgroups, such as low-fat milk, fruit juice, and alcohol. They weighted some components of the HBI more heavily because of their recognized contributions to good health, such as water contributing at least 20% of total fluid intake, and others less heavily, for example, consuming no more than 8 oz. of fruit juice and found that people with better HBI scores had more favorable cardiometabolic outcomes. Researchers are now developing this technique into a rapid assessment tool to provide patients and doctors with accurate consumption information that could be used to encourage better eating behaviors.

Technology to debitter citrus juices

Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), India, has developed a technology for debittering of citrus juice. According to Dr. Parampal Sahota, at PAU, bitterness in citrus juice (kinnow, orange, grape fruit) was because of the presence of high content of naringin and limonin. The experts have produced and characterised naringinase enzyme from yeast namely clavispora lusitaniae. The enzyme can hydrolyse and reduce the naringin content (from 600 ppm) to palatable bitterness level (180 ppm) in the juice. The oral toxicity study reveals that the enzyme is non-toxic and safe for food use. The bio-process consisting of production and purification holds a promising mean to prepare the purified naringinase enzyme.

New tool for blueberry juice processors

A student with FoodHQ partner Massey University, New Zealand, has developed a tool to help local processors keep the health-promoting qualities of whole blueberries when they make juice. Khairul Kasim spent three years as part of her doctorate degree researching blueberry juicing, using pilot plant equipment at Massey University. A review of literature about blueberry health effects led Kasim to select three sets of chemicals to look at: anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid and procyanidin-B. She investigated the physical and chemical processes that occur during typical processing stages, worked out what was happening to the berries as a result and then tested her calculations against samples of real juice she had made.

The result is a computer model that shows the relationship between how the blueberries are treated during processing and the resulting levels of three types of chemicals in the juice end-product. Massey University Professor Julian Heyes, who supervised Kasim’s work, said that the Food Pilot Plant was key as it provided a range of small-scale versions of commercial equipment that can be used to make 50 litres of a juice at a time for testing. The research findings give processors a way of assessing how to get a particular result before they start working with the fruit. “They can dial up a processing recipe. You type in the temperature and the time for each stage and it will tell you how much of each of these three chemicals is left in the juice at the end,” said Heyes.

According to Professor Heyes, the payoff can also be substantial “Blueberry juice is a high-value product – it sells at about $20 a litre. There are great opportunities to sell it to the growing middle class, for example in the South East Asian region. They are health-conscious and have enough income to be able to pay for good products.” As a further step, Kasim also did some research into consumer perceptions of blueberry juices containing high levels of the three chemical types, so she could describe relationships with such aspects as astringency, bitterness and sweetness. She was delighted to find her juices were well received.

Pomegranate juice turned into a microcapsule

The pomegranate is a fruit rich in antioxidants, with anti-hypertensive properties and is proven to help reduce levels of glucose in the blood; however, because it is a seasonal fruit is difficult to consume throughout the year. So, to reap its benefits in any month, Gabriel Cabrera Betanzos, at Institute of Health Sciences (ICSA) of the University of Hidalgo (UAEH), Mexico, has designed a microencapsulation process from pomegranate juice which won an award to apply for patent registration. The innovation is that unlike other business presentations this one does not lose the natural properties of the fruit in the microencapsulation process.

The method consists in converting the natural pomegranate juice in small dust particles that can be dissolved in water. Its formula helps to preserve the product and allows the antioxidants to reach the digestive tract. According to Betanzos Cabrera, the idea for this product came after observing that people do not consume the pomegranate because of the difficulty and laziness to peel the fruit. He ensured that the process is relevant in Hidalgo because it is the second largest producer of pomegranate at a national level; however, it is not exploited as expected despite being a fruit which lowers glucose levels, triglycerides and hypertension. The benefits of the pomegranate are better than those of fruits like the cranberry, grapefruit, grape or black and green tea, which are considered a good source of antioxidants.

The microencapsulation innovation of the UAEH researcher uses a technological process by which natural and nutritional properties are not lost. In addition, the microcapsules aid in the better adsorption of the antioxidants since the capsules are gradually broken in the digestive tract, which does not happen with the natural juice because it loses effectiveness because the pH of the stomach. The research showed in laboratory tests that the pomegranate, and in particular the microencapsulated presentation, is antidiabetic by reducing the levels of sugar in the blood, which means it can be used in the treatment of this condition. It also reduces some of the signs of metabolic syndrome as the index of circumference, high blood pressure and triglyceride levels.


Cost-effective technology for meat exporters

Indian Institute of Packaging (IIP) has specifically developed a new technology, called modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for meat exporters that allows export at -4 degrees Celsius, instead of the present -20 degree Celsius. IIP has claimed that this new technology developed by it can help meat exporters bring down their energy cost on the logistical side by a hefty 40 per cent.

This helps increase the shelf-life of goat meat from three days to nine days now. The shelf life of buffalo meat has improved from seven days to 13 days using this technology. “At present, meat is exported in frozen condition at -20 degrees Celsius. With the MAP technology, exporters will be able to send consignments at -4 degree Celsius. This is a massive saving in energy cost and will hugely benefit the exporter community,” said N C Saha, at IIP.

It can be noted that beef has become the second largest forex earner for the country among the agriculture commodities after basmati rice, with 31 per cent increase in quantity and 52 per cent rise in value terms during 2013-14. As per the figures of Apeda (Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority), beef exports totalled Rs 26,458 crore in 2014 and Saha said the MAP can help it increase further. The IIP was set up in 1966 by the packaging and allied industries and the Union Commerce Ministry.

New shelf-ready packaging solutions

Packaging solutions expert Linkx Packaging Systems, the United Kingdom, offers a wide range of options for standard customisable shelf-ready packaging machinery. The company produces machines that are suitable for wrapping and packaging almost any type of product, within pharmaceutical, food, beverage and home industries. Linkx has already supplied solutions to several major companies, and is continuously exploring innovative new shelf-ready packaging solutions for their customers.

The machines prepare products so that they can be delivered to a retailer in a ready-to-sell merchandised unit, making them easy to place on the shelf without the need for unpacking or repacking. Shelf-ready packaging makes products easy to display with no need to adjust the products presentation. Among the many modules that can be combined to produce standard customized shelf-ready packaging solutions are carton/tray erectors with a class-leading output of up to 60 trays per minute, carton sealing/closing units to suit almost any type of carton, carton/tray loaders, and semi-automatic or manual loading shrink wrappers.

The solutions can also include robot palletisers, which have been developed specifically for use in modern production environments, and gantry palletisers that combine the benefits of small footprint, low cost and high operation speed with rapid return on investment. Both types of palletiser have potential for convenient and cost-effective future expansion. All Linkx shelf-ready packaging solutions use the latest technologies and innovations to provide users with unmatched quality and performance. Contact: Linkx Systems Limited, Anson House, Anson Way, Ellough, Beccles, Suffolk, NR34 7TJ, UK. Tel: +44-1502-713777; Fax: +44-1986-800081; E-mail:

Vertical form-fill-seal packaging machines

At Pack Expo, held on September 28-30 in Las Vegas, Matrix Packaging Machinery, powered by Pro Mach, the United States, showcased the first in a series of new automatic setup capabilities for the Morpheus continuous motion and Apollo intermittent motion vertical form-fill-seal machines. The company also announced that the Apollo can now be cost effectively upgraded to continuous motion at any time in the future when higher than 150 bags per minute production speed is required. An upgraded Apollo would be equal to Morpheus at up to 180 bags per minute throughput.

“What we’ve done is give Apollo customers an economical migration path. The Apollo will support production requirements as the customers’ business expands,” said Marc Willden, at Matrix. Both the Morpheus and Apollo are built on Matrix next generation technology that offers such core attributes as small footprint to conserve floor space, high-speed operation for greater throughput, PC-based architecture with the latest in servo motion control for exacting operation and fast changeover, and the PackML programming language, which gives commonality to packaging machine operator interface and machine-to-machine communication.

Morpheus machines are capable of running films that require longer seal times while still yielding high throughput, making it ideal for applications such as frozen, fresh cut, and individually quick frozen (IQF) foods. Morpheus can run bag sizes from 2-12 inches (51-305 mm) wide to 2-20 inches (51-508 mm) long; Apollo processes bags 2-12 inches (51-305 mm) wide to 3-14 inches (76-356 mm) long.

Cost-effective soy-based packaging solution

The Ohio Soybean Council (OSC) and researchers at Battelle, the United States, have developed a soy-based, BPA-free coating for use in the lining of metal food and beverage cans and other coating applications. This breakthrough will help food producers develop packaging solutions that meet increasing consumer health and safety demands while providing excellent performance and food safety. The technology has been recognized as one of the top 10 innovative coating technologies at the 2015 European Coatings Innovation event.

Since the 1960s, Bisphenol A (BPA), a petroleum-based chemical, has been used as a coating in many familiar products including plastic bottles and beer and beverage cans. Studies over the last decade have indicated a health risk associated with BPA. The food and beverage industry has been very active in developing safe alternatives in response to pressure from consumers. OSC has filed a patent-pending reactive oligomer technology that meets the challenge of replacing BPA in beer and beverage can and other industrial coating applications. Early laboratory results indicate that the soy coating’s performance is comparable to current BPA based can coatings.

New filling machine for extended shelf-life products

Food and beverage packaging firm Tetra Pak, Switzerland, has launched a new high performance filling machine for chilled distribution. The new Tetra Pak TR/G7 has the capacity to produce 6500 gable top packages every hour with reliable bottom sealing, thereby reducing the risk of leakages and improving product safety. The machine, developed in partnership with filling machine producer Galdi, can pack extended shelf-life products, including white milk, juice and still drinks in four package volumes such as 250ml, 500ml, 750ml and 1000ml.

Its hassle free installation and maintenance minimizes costs and enables production to begin quickly. “With its comparably small footprint, low utility consumption, minimal complexity and outstanding quality, Tetra Pak TR/G7 delivers tangible benefits that help to improve the bottom line for producers. It is not only suitable for small and medium dairies who are looking for low cost investment, but also for producers that intend to upgrade their existing lines, especially in markets like Europe and Japan,” said Per Lauritzen, at Tetra Pak.

The Tetra Pak TR/G7 can be customized based on individual customer needs by adding functions such as a cap applicator, waste carton ejection system or a movable oil drop plate to make cleaning easier. In June, Tetra Pak launched improved version of Evero Aseptic bottles for enriched dairy products.

Advanced packaging system for consumer goods

At Pack Expo held in Las Vegas, Clear Lam Packaging Inc., the United States, and Triangle Package Machinery Co., the United States, unveiled the new Triangle PrimaPak Continuous Motion Vertical Bagging Machine (Model XYT15) designed for food and consumer packaged goods products. The Vertical Form-Fill-Seal (VFFS) Bagger features a proprietary PrimaPak System Interface which produces the industry’s first ever flexible, stackable, reclosable package designed to replace rigid cans, bottles, jars, trays and dysfunctional stand-up pouches.

The advanced packaging system was developed to eliminate excessive packaging waste from the supply chain as sustainable packaging is becoming more important for consumer packaged goods manufacturers. The PrimaPak package, which is produced from flexible rollstock, uses up to 70% less plastics compared to Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) cans, bottles, jar or trays, translating into less weight and cost and fuel savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Also, the Model XYT15 can provide up to seven different types of opening and closing designs depending on the application making it very consumer-friendly in that the packaging is easy to handle and use, portable and easy to open and reseal. The opening and closing elements are incorporated into the PrimaPak rollstock.


Centrifuge technology for food & beverage products

Developed by SPX Corporation, the United States, the Seital Separation Technology vertical disk stack centrifuges provides high quality separation and clarification in compact solutions. Seital centrifuge technology has been developed based on detailed analysis of flow dynamics along with a clear understanding of applications and challenges within the food and beverage industry. When designing a solution, all aspects of the system are considered including vibration, aerodynamics of the centrifuge bowl, noise levels, energy usage, reliability and maintenance to ensure reliable, efficient operation of the machine.

Seital vertical disk centrifuges offer exceptionally gentle separation or clarification processes which minimise the stress on the product being produced, preserving favourable characteristics and ensuring consistent, reliable production. With the understanding of flow dynamics, the machines are designed to offer optimum efficiency for a given application. For areas such as the clarification of tea or wine, this efficiency results in the exceptional clarity required for a high quality end product.

Hygiene is assured as all wetted parts on the centrifuges are made from stainless steel with no crevices for easy, complete cleaning and automatic clean in place (CIP) functionality available. Machines are further designed for straightforward maintenance and, with a compact form, easy installation into existing facilities. Precise control and adjustment of the machine is provided through an intuitive operator interface to ensure the process is providing exactly the right product characteristics. Contact: SPX Corporation, 13320-A Ballantyne Corporate Place, Charlotte, North Carolina 28277, United States.

Fast and efficient grape debunching

JFPT/food life, the Netherlands, have introduced a machine that automatically separates grapes from the bunch with little or no damage. The Pluckr is currently in operation at one of the largest vegetable processors in the Netherlands and there is a great deal of interest from abroad. The new grape debuncher is a compact machine with three to twelve cups, each with stainless steel jaws, and a vibrating system. Depending on the number of cups, Pluckr is able to process one hundred to six hundred kilos of grapes per hour, depending on the variety. By comparison, manual debunching achieves only ten kilos per hour at best.

On the Pluckr processing line, bunches of grapes are manually hung in the grippers. The grapes are then shaken loose and fall from a small height onto a conveyor belt. The fruits can then be packed fully automatically. The vibration speed is set via a touchscreen display and can be adapted to the type and quality of grapes. The machine combines different technologies from the two companies. This ensures the grapes receive no, or minimal, damage when they are shaken loose, in contrast to existing systems in which the grapes are massaged loose. The drive technology has the unique ability to move up, down, forward and backward.

New food processing technology

HRS Process Systems Ltd (HRS PSL), part of HRS Group, the United Kingdom, is focusing on enhanced product application engineering to cater to the growing demand for food processing in beverage, pulp, nutraceuticals and prepared food segments. “We have already invested about Rs 30 million in enhancing our manufacturing facility to cater to our growth plans for the next five years. We will be focusing on enhanced product application engineering to cater to the growing demand for food processing in beverage, pulp, nutraceuticals and prepared food segments, said V Gokuldas, at HRS PSL.

The company recently introduced HRS Monobloc Steriliser, which is used for processing of various pulpy products like mango, guava and tomato. This was developed with a thorough understanding of seasonal fruit availability, heat sensitive product processing and retaining natural flavour and taste. This system allows integration with pre-heaters, pasteurisers and is designed to process upto 12,000 kg per hour of fruit pulp/ puree concentrate of high viscosity, the statement said.


High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing

This book presents the fundamentals of high pressure technologies from the perspective of mass transfer phenomena and thermodynamic considerations. Novel food applications are exposed and their relation to chemical analysis, extraction, reaction and particle formation processes are outlined.

The chapters are written by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in chemistry, food processes, analytical chemistry, chemical engineering and chemical engineering thermodynamics, and biotechnology.

Food Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity.

This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

For the above two books, contact: Springer Science+Business Media Singapore Private Limited, 152 Beach Road, #22-06/08 Gateway East, Singapore 189721. E-mail:

Revalorization of Food processing residues

This study focuses on how to use the valuable components in food processing residues as well as support some foods with them. These components are used as antioxidants, antimicrobial, flavor compounds, food thickeners, etc. Thus, we should benefit from the residues instead of getting rid of them and re-use them again to make use of all fruits and reduce the costs of final product.

Contact: Lambert Academic Publishing. E-mail:, web:


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