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VATIS Update New and Renewable Energy . Jul-Sep 2015

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New and Renewable Energy Jul-Sep 2015

ISSN: 0971-5630

VATIS Update New and Renewable Energy (formerly Non Conventional Energy)* is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of New and Renewable Energy. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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* This update has been renamed as 'VATIS Update: New and Renewable Energy' from Jan-Mar 2015 onwards.

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Contents

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IN THE NEWS

IFC turns focus on renewable energy funding

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank Group, is refocusing its power sec-tor investment strategy and would soon invest in renewable and hydropower projects in India. It has made equity and debt investment in wind and solar segments and is now looking at corporate debt finance. IFC has invested $275 million in debt and $47 million in equity in wind and solar energy projects in India. “We do not finance coal projects any more. While natural gas is a difficult sector, solar and wind projects can be deployed rapidly to meet the government’s 24x7 power supply plan,” said Gaetan Tiberghien, principal investment officer, infrastructure and natural resources, South Asia.

Tiberghien said coal-based power generation projects take about three years to go on stream, while hydro-power can take around seven years. Wind projects can be completed in a year and solar ones faster. Though analysts have expressed concern at unrealistic rate bids by solar power generators, Tiberghein said these have been able to sustain because it coincided with the rapid decrease in costs. “Bidders have been lucky as they have been able to take the benefit of a fall in costs. Unlike the road sector, where ag-gressive bids caused concern, there have been no cost overruns in solar.”

However that might not be the case anymore, as costs in solar have stabilised and it could be risky to put in aggressive bids. The two main concerns for IFC, however, are curtailment and financial health of distribution companies. The curtailment being faced by wind power generators in Tamil Nadu was that these were in a position to generate energy, but the transmission grid was unable to carry it. “About 20 per cent of wind energy in Tamil Nadu is curtailed. A similar problem is witnessed in China, too,” concluded Ti-berghein.
Source: http://www.business-standard.com

Hybrid device combines solar and wind energy

In an enterprise which could bring hybrid renewable energy to Indian rooftops, renewable energy tech-nologies manufacturer, WindStream Technologies, the United States, has launched its trademark product ‘SolarMill’, at its newly inaugurated facility in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The prototype of the portable device consists of three vertical axis wind turbines fixed beneath one or more photovoltaic panels, to produce 2.5KW of renewable energy. The turbines need a minimum wind speed of two metres per second for generation. Based on the climatic conditions, wind speeds and local needs, the devices may be integrated seamlessly, representatives of the company said.

“A solar and wind analysis will be done before arriving at the combination of solar and wind compo-nents. The devices are designed to work in both on-grid and off-grid environments, hence, are suitable for mini or micro grids in remote locations,” said Venkat Kumar Tangirala, at WindStream Technologies. Besides claiming that this is the first fully integrated hybrid renewable energy device, the company also cites lowest cost per installed watt (35 sq ft for one kilowatt), flexibility between battery and inverter, and easy plug-in facility to attach two devices as its USPs. The appliance is designed for 25 years durability, and comes with a five-year warranty. It is presently priced at about Rs.1.32 lakh per KW.

So far, 10 to 15 installations of SolarMill across India account for 10 to 20 KW power generation. However, several more installations are in the pipeline, among them a pilot from Indian Railways to power its un-manned level crossings. The company seeks to expand production to north India, and other districts of Tel-angana and may also begin manufacturing of one more product – TowerMill in India, which could power the telecom towers.
Source: http://www.thehindu.com

Palm oil biodiesel programme in Malaysia

Malaysia has launched nationwide B5 biodiesel programme – three years after the initial phase launch in the central region in the Peninsula. The B5 biodiesel is a blend of 5% palm oil or palm me-thyl ester (PME) and diesel. For this palm biodiesel initiative, the PME requirement for the entire B5 pro-gramme is estimated at 500,000 tonnes per year to support both the subsidised and non-subsidised sectors in the country. This initiative is also envisaged to effectively reduce domestic palm oil inventory to below one million tonnes, and provide a floor price to support CPO prices at RM2,000 per tonne, said Yung Chee Liang at Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB).

The B5 implementation was launched in phases, starting with the central region (Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur Selangor, Selangor and Malacca) between June and November 2011. Next was the southern region (Johor) in July last year, followed by the northern region (Perlis, Kedah, Penang and Perak) in October, the eastern region (Kelantan, Pahang and Trengganu) in January, and finally, Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan this July to complete full national coverage. Meanwhile, the B5 programme has been fully implemented among the sub-sidised sectors such as retail stations, fleetcard, skid tanks and fisheries in the central region since 2012.

Yung said there is a need to install more in-line blending facilities at another 26 depots for the full implemen-tation of B5 nationwide. Another issue to tackle is the need to finance the construction of in-line blending facilities for petroleum companies. For full implementation of B5, Yung expects an estimated RM300mil for in-line blending facilities for 35 petroleum depots or terminals, while additional subsidies may be required when the main PME feedstock – crude palm oil (CPO) – price is higher than that of diesel. At the same time, it is important for on time completion of the blending facilities, as well as to iron out the chal-lenges of logistics and supply in Sabah and Sarawak.
Source: http://www.thestar.com.my

Indonesia’s new plan to support biofuel blend

The Indonesian Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry is in process of assessing several policy options that will help biofuel producers fulfill demand, which continues to rise following the implementation of mandatory biodiesel blending. “There were three options currently under assessment to support producers of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), which is widely used in biodiesel,” said Rida Mulyana, director general for new-renewable and conservation of energy. The three options include whether to maintain the existing scheme in which a subsidy for biodiesel is included in the fixed subsidy of diesel.

The two other options are proposals to regulate the crude palm oil (CPO) price in the domestic market to lower FAME producers’ production costs and to use the income from CPO export taxes to fund the biodiesel subsidy. “If we implement the subsidy mechanism, we have to seek approval from the House of Representatives. However, if the process with the House is considered too time-consuming, there is an option of fiscal incentives, including on the value-added and export tax as well as regulation for CPO price,” Rida said. Following persistent pressure on the rupiah against US dollar, the government is set to revamp a number of policies to improve the economy.

Among the policies is an obligation to mix diesel with biodiesel by 15 percent from previously 10 percent. The blending of renewable sources into diesel is aimed at reducing the volume of fossil fuels used in the country, which in turn can reduce imports of petroleum products. Under the previous 10 percent mandatory biodiesel blending, the government planned to support FAME producers by providing a subsidy so they could cope with the oil-price decline that has also affected other commodity prices. However, because the implementation of the new policy has yet to be decided, the exact amount needed for the remaining nine months has yet to be determined. As much as US$2.5 billion is estimated to be saved from replacing fossil fuels with biodiesel, if the mandatory blending runs smoothly through 2015.
Source: http://www.thejakartapost.com

China issues typhoon turbine standard

China’s standardisation and quality supervision authorities have issued a technical standard for onshore wind turbines in typhoon-prone areas. The standard was formulated by a task team led by Chinese turbine manufacturer Windey. Typhoons hit China’s east and southeast coastal regions every year with typical speeds of 40 m/s (144km/h). Windey has attempted to develop turbines that could cope with extremely strong winds. Its 1.5MW, 2MW and 2.5MW models have been designed to withstand typhoons.

The standard is the first in the country and will be enforced from 1 February 2016. However, it will not be compulsory. According to Windey, it would help manufacturers make quality, typhoon-proof wind turbines at lower cost, and reduce the risk to developers. Windey has installed 898MW of new wind capacity in 2014, giving it a 3.87% share of the national market, and ranking it ninth on the list of major manufacturers.
Source: http://www.windpowermonthly.com

Indonesia sets renewable energy target for 2019

Indonesia has announced a short-term target for increasing their share of renewable energy in the country’s energy mix. The south-east Asian country has announced a medium-term target for in-creasing the share of renewable energy in total energy use to 25% by 2025. The Indonesian govern-ment has now set a target to increase the share of renewable energy in total energy mix to 19% by 2019. The share of renewable energy in Indonesia’s total energy use, at present, stands at around 5% to 6%. Interestingly, the announcement of the medium-term target comes just months ahead of the Paris climate change summit, where advanced developing countries, including Indonesia, are expected to face increased pressure to commit to mitigation targets.

Geothermal energy is expected to be central to Indonesia’s renewable energy plans. Indonesia has an estimated geothermal energy potential of 29 GW – equivalent to about 40% of world’s total geothermal reserves. More than 1 GW of electricity generation capacity is operational or under development. The government is expected to speed-up development of additional geothermal energy assets. The government was reported to be working to have 4 to 5 GW of geothermal capacity operational by the end of this year.

The government is also looking to develop wind energy and other renewable energy technologies. Construc-tion of the country’s first large-scale wind energy project has already started, with the 50 MW project is being constructed by a joint venture between an Indonesian and American company. The project is ex-pected to be commissioned in 2019. Indonesia is also planning to significantly increase investments in the energy sector. The government has lined up more over $300 billion investment in the energy sector, including $38 billion in the renewable energy sector.
Source: http://www.cleantechnica.com

Sri Lanka targeting affordable renewable energy

Sri Lanka’s Ministry has developed a comprehensive Sri Lanka Energy Sector Plan for a knowledge based Economy for a ten year period until 2025. “This is for the entire energy sector of the country minimizing our dependence on importing fossil fuel for energy generation and to offer our citi-zens an affordable and cleaner and green energy in the future,” Patali Champika Ranawaka, Minister of Power and Energy. He stated that for the first time since many years entire energy sector institutions have been joined under one roof. This includes subjects of power, renewable energy, petroleum exploration, distribution and also atomic energy as well.

“Our aim is to develop the entire energy sector institutions into a collective synergetic mass so that efficiency and effectiveness of the entire sector will be improved paving way for ultimate ­energy ­security of the country,” said Ranawaka. It has been calculated that nearly 50% of Sri Lanka’s export income has to be spent to meet the country’s import demand of fossil fuel which is equivalent to approximately 5 billion US$ annually. This is an astronomical figure which needs serious attention. This should not be continued if our country is to be developed and we need to find alternative strategies to meet our energy demands sustainably and economically, the minister revealed.

The ministry is now in the process of approving 100 MW of renewable energy projects including mini hydro, solar, solar thermal, waste to energy etc. as a major step in this direction. The strategy is prepared under Eight Thrust areas with the objective of providing reliable, sustainable, affordable and high quality energy supply for Sri Lanka’s economic prosperity. “We are working on introducing a pricing formula in the near future, this will be based on correct variables and indices for both electricity and fuel so that the entire pricing process will be transparent to the general public. What we need is to find the correct balance between the environmental preservation and our economic prosperity,” said Ranawaka.
Source: http://www.lankaweb.com

SOLAR ENERGY

Researchers develop commercially viable polymer solar cells

A group of scientists from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Japan, have developed a new type of polymer solar cell based on ‘inverted’ architecture and well-designed materials, which has an improved efficiency of 10%. Polymer solar cells are widely being researched owing to their strong future capabilities and significant challenges. The lower production cost of these cells has made them a suitable replacement for traditional silicon substrate-based solar cells, with power conversion efficiencies of 10 to 15%.

When compared to their silicon alternatives, the polymer solar cells are eco-friendly and inexpensive to manufacture. However, the major concerns associated with polymer cells are the ability to degrade rapidly and low power efficiency as a result of their structure. The polymer solar cell developed was a bulk-heterojunction solar cell where the layers of electron donor and acceptor are combined together to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 10%, a range which is close to the threshold of commercial viability. The research carried out jointly by Itaru Osaka and Kazuo Takimiya of the RIKEN Center has been published in the journal Nature Photonics.

“While private firms have been able to develop cells with similar efficiency, they have done so ­using proprietary technology, so that it was not possible to know why things were working the way they were. We began experimenting with a substance called PNTz4T, which we had previously developed, and were able initially to achieve a power conversion efficiency of about 8%, with a fairly thick active layer of about 300 nanometers. Surprisingly, though, we found that when we used an inverted architecture, where the light enters through a transparent negative electrode, in our case made of zinc oxide, we found that the cell with the inverted architecture had better efficiency, which is abnormal for cells of the type we built. We believe that it is due to the alignment of molecules inside the mixed layers,” said Osaka.
Source: http://www.azom.com

Breakthrough achievement in solar cell efficiency

Researchers at Aalto University, Finland, have achieved a record-breaking 22.1% efficiency for a nanostructured silicon, or black, solar cell. They accomplished this by overlaying a thin, passivating film on the nanostructures by a process known as atomic layer deposition, and by integrating all of the metal contacts on the cell’s back side. Perhaps the best part: Black solar cells work really well on cloudy days. “This is an advantage particularly in the north, where the sun shines from a low angle for a large part of the year. We have demonstrated that in winter Helsinki, black cells generate considerably more electricity than traditional cells, even though both cells have identical efficiency values,” said professor Hele Savin from Aalto University.

Using the aforementioned process, the team managed to beat their previous record by almost 4%, which is a stunning achievement. The new cells have a certified external quantum efficiency of 96% at 300nm wavelengths, which the team said shows that charged carrier surface recombination is no longer a problem – and that for the first time, the black silicon isn’t limiting energy conversion efficiency. And thanks to the inherent properties of black solar cells, they can capture solar radiation at low angles, generating more electricity over the full duration of a day as compared with traditional cells.

Next, the team took the same process and apply it to other kinds of cell structures, such as thin and mul-ti-crystalline cells. They also wanted to try fabricating cells using n-type silicon instead of p-type silicon. The “best” cells used in this example were 3×3 centimeters in size; later examples could be upscaled to full wafers on to an industrial scale, the team said. The data shows the use of black silicon can result in a 3% increase in daily energy production when compared with a reference cell with the same efficiency, due to its better angular acceptance, the researchers said.
Source: http://www.extremetech.com

New energy efficient n-PERT solar cell

Nano-electronics research center IMEC, Belgium, has announced a new efficiency record for its large area n-type PERT (passivated emitter, rear totally diffused) crystalline silicon (Cz-Si) solar cell, now reaching 22.5 percent (calibrated at ISE CalLab). It is the highest efficiency achieved for a two-side-contacted solar cell processed on six inch commercially available n-type Cz-Si wafers without the use of passivated contacts. N-type silicon solar cells are considered as promising alternatives to p-type solar cells for next generation highly efficient solar cells thanks to their ability to withstand light-induced degradation and to their higher tolerance to common metal impurities.

Aiming to increase the conversion efficiency of n-type silicon solar cells, IMEC is exploring material and architectural improvements to extend its n-PERT solar cell concept. The cells feature Ni/Cu/Ag front contacts, rear local contacts, a diffused front surface field (FSF) and a rear emitter. The cells achieved an independently confirmed open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 689mV, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 40.3 mA/cm2, and 80.9 percent fill factor (FF). IMEC has also been exploring n-type PERT cells with a rear side p-type emitter using epitaxial growth or heterojunction processes. These advanced architec-tures have reached promising conversion efficiencies approaching 22 percent.

“This new record is a testimony of our technology leadership in developing next-generation silicon photovoltaics solutions. We have a strong commitment to continue increasing the efficiency our n-PERT technology, and are very optimistic that these achievements will further pave the way to industrialization in the near term,” said Filip Duerinckx, at IMEC. The presented results have been achieved in the framework of IMEC’s industrial affiliation program on advanced silicon solar cells, dedicated to de-veloping high performance and low cost Si PV-technologies. In this program, IMEC worked closely together with industrial and academic partners along the solar cell value chain.
Source: http://www.phys.org

Solar cell sets a new world record

In a new study, scientists from several of Japan’s largest research centers: the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), the Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology Research Association (PVTEC), Sharp, Panasonic, and Mitsubishi, have reported a world record stabilized efficiency of 13.6% for a triple-junction thin-film silicon solar cell, which is a newer version of the single-junction thin-film silicon solar cell that has been used in commercial products since the 1970s. This value edges out the previous record of 13.44%, and the researchers expect that a few reasonable improvements will push it above 14%.

Because there are many different types of efficiencies when it comes to solar cells, it is often difficult for non-specialists to do direct comparisons.

The researchers explained in their study that stabilized efficiency is power conversion efficiency (PCE) that accounts for light-induced degradation. Numerous factors likely contribute to light-induced degradation in silicon solar cells, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. One design method for reducing light-induced degradation involves fabricating the solar cells on honeycomb-textured substrates. So far, the honeycomb textures have mostly been used for single-junction solar cells, which are made of just one semiconductor material and so can absorb light of only one wavelength. The scientists have verified that the honeycomb texture can also be used to grow multijunction solar cells.
Source: http://www.phys.org

Researchers create solar cells with record efficiency

Researchers at the Department of Electronic Engineering of the Universitat Politècnica de Cata-lunya (UPC), Spain, have obtained a record efficiency of 22% by creating silicon solar cells that in-corporate a surface treatment called black silicon on the front of the cell. This technique nanostructures the surface with a dry chemical attack that results in small conical tips at the nanometric scale. Incorporating black silicon reduces the loss of energy caused by the reflectance of solar cells to almost zero. This signifi-cantly increases the yield, by almost 4% compared with traditional solar cells.

In fact, it is called black silicon because, at first glance, the treated surface is black (and does not reflect light), whereas standard cells are blue. This extra improvement in efficiency would allow a refrigerator, for example, to run for a day in a photovoltaic system composed of a 5 m2 panel. Solar cells are the main element of solar panels, which are installed to capture sunlight and produce electricity from it. Gen-erally, to ensure that they reflect as little light as possible and thus prevent energy loss, solar cells are tex-tured using an alkaline bath that forms a rough surface on which pyramids are randomly distributed.

This technique makes the cells thicker because it consumes a significant amount of silicon in the process. Black silicon, however, allows very thin silicon cells to be used, lowering production costs and saving silicon. An added advantage achieved by researchers from the UPC and Aalto University, Finland, is that, given the ability of black cells to capture solar radiation from lower angles, more electricity can be generated during a longer period throughout the day compared with traditional cells.
Source: http://www.ecnmag.com

WIND ENERGY

Bladeless wind turbines to generate electricity

A startup company Vortex Bladeless, Spain, has developed revolutionary bladeless wind turbines which look like stalks of asparagus poking out of the ground, is using pillars that shake back and forth from the vortices created by the movement of air around the structure to generate power. Typically, a structure can only be optimized to oscillate at the specific frequencies caused by a certain wind speed, but Vortex says it is using magnets to adjust the turbine on the fly to get the most from whatever the wind speeds happen to be. Once the structure starts vibrating, an alternator in the base of the device then converts the mechanical movement into electricity.

Vortex claims that energy produced by its turbines will cost around 40 percent less than energy made from today’s wind turbines and a large part of that cost reduction comes from maintenance as the Vortex doesn’t have moving parts or gears, it should last longer and won’t require periodic lubrication. The simpler design also means that manufacturing costs are about half that of a traditional wind turbine (those massive blades are expensive). As per Vortex, its bladeless design captures around 30 percent less energy than a regular turbine, but it’s possible to fit more of the “silent” Vortex models in the same area.

Vortex is working on its “Mini,” a 41-foot model that should be ready for commercialization in 2016, while a larger, industrial model is in the works for 2018.
Source: http://www.theindianpanorama.com

Micro wind turbines to supply power to rural villages

Two engineering students at the University of Windsor, Canada, have developed a micro wind turbine built from parts made with a 3D printer. It takes about two hours to build the turbine’s parts and takes less than a minute to assemble them. They can generate five watts of power, enough to charge a cellphone, run a flashlight or GPS device. Lucas Semple and his business partner Kyle Bassett came up with the idea five years ago while working in remote villages in Central America.

Semple said that to someone with no power, access to even a little bit of power is life changing. “Even for a two-foot-long-by-six-inch-diameter case, international shipping costs are very high, and they’re actually more than it costs us to make the turbine. So by producing them down there, it’s cost-efficient. We can help the local people and get it to them directly,” said Semple. The pair is selling the turbines for $150 each.

They have just launched a Kickstarter campaign in hopes of raising $40,000 to further their project. Bassett said through open source licensing, he’d like people to be able to build their own micro turbine. “It is now practical, affordable and easy for anyone to use clean wind energy to power the electronics of their life. With Kickstarter support, we will empower anyone to download, print and create their own micro turbine in the matter of hours,” said Bassett.
Source: http://www.cbc.ca

Vertical axis set to shake up wind turbine market

4Navitas Green Energy Solutions, the United Kingdom, in collaboration with Siemens, Germany, and HMK Companies, the United Kingdom, have developed a new vertical-axis wind turbine and believe that it could revolutionise the global landscape of onshore wind farms dominated by horizontal-axis designs. The micro-generating turbine was designed by leading structural, aeronautical and electrical engineers in the UK with small businesses, farms and local communities in mind. The concept was built around tackling fatigue, an ongoing issue in HAWTs with wind coming from all directions, creating bearing and gearbox stress due to pitch requirements. The VAWT is features low-drag airfoils and a low rotor speed of 32 rpm, which means there is no need for a blade pitch control system.

Having power, electronics, motor and gearbox at ground level makes it easy to maintain, while wear is re-duced and performance should be improved beyond the 20-year predicted lifespan. The team took a year and half to refine the engineering of the wind turbine. Drive, motor, coupling and gearbox use an integrated drive system, with output currently rated at up to 75kW and a 1MW version in the pipeline. The turbine has a helical bevel gear unit at its base and the IE3 rated motor is close coupled with the gearbox. The shaft is supported by bearings down the mast so gearbox load and fatigue transfer is reduced. The VAWT has a near silent-running, by earthing through the tower, two buttress legs and grillages that reduce resonance and noise to just 40dB – the equivalent of a quiet library.

Noise has been an ongoing issue with onshore wind turbines and the reduction in noise means the turbine could be located in populated areas, near schools, hospitals and even within communities. In mi-cro-generation terms, the turbine is 37 metres tall, less than its HAWT counterparts, taking up a much smaller footprint with no need for a large concrete base, engineers said. The 4N-55 VAWTs are now moving into serial production, after undergoing extensive testing, including to almost three times normal operating speeds (100 rpm at the mill). The company is also considering international licences for its worldwide manu-facture.

Students invent airborne wind turbine

Three students from University of Sharjah/Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, UAE, have invented an airborne wind turbine to generate electricity. Noha Diab, Somaya Esmat, Yusra Ba Matraf under the supervision of Dr. Salih Akour came up with new design for wind turbine that can suit such tropical climate.

The new design is airborne wind turbine that is proposed through the phase 1 of their senior design project. This type of turbines is a tool that has recently evolved to solve the ever-increasing energy demands of the world that the traditional wind turbines could not efficiently address specially in the regions that have low average wind speed.

The students analyzed the wind speed data for the past five years. Based on the analysis an alternative wind energy system is presented. Wind turbine blade airfoil has been chosen to suit UAE climate. The wind power is harvested by using well-designed Airborne Wind Turbine. Software package is utilized to obtain the opti-mum design of the turbine. In the 2nd phase of their senior design project, a prototype is going be manufactured and verified experimental. An airborne wind turbine is a design concept for a wind turbine with a rotor supported in the air without a tower, thus benefiting from more mechanical and aerodynamic options like, the higher speed and persistence of wind at high altitudes.

In this project, an airborne wind turbine is proposed as a new high-altitude wind power system. This tech-nique is generally simpler and more stable despite the fact that the rotor and electrical generator are situated inside the inflatable cylindrical shell. The round shaped rotor adjusts itself to the wind stream direction. The shell is filled with helium gas which is light in weight to produces the necessary lift force to fly the whole system.

The turbine system is hooked to a ground station by tether line to hold it in place. The proposed design is environment friendly i.e., the wind energy which is clean source of energy will be harvested to generate elec-tricity. It is also cost-effective in the long term compared to the conventional wind turbines.
Source: https://www.zawya.com

Prototype of 7-MW offshore wind turbine

Just a few months after its sales launch, Siemens, Germany, has installed a prototype of its offshore flagship wind turbine of the type SWT-7.0-154, in Østerild, Denmark. The planned field testing of the 7-megawatt (MW), mainly focusses on the upgraded generator and the enhanced electrical system. The majority of other components are equal to the proven technology of the Siemens SWT-6.0-154 – in-cluding the rotor with its outstanding diameter of 154 meters. This latest edition of the D7 product platform can produce 32 million kilowatt hours of clean electricity under offshore wind conditions, enough energy to supply up to 7,000 households.

In May 2011, Siemens installed the first prototype of its direct drive offshore wind turbine, while in the mean-time the direct drive wind turbine has become the benchmark in the offshore wind industry.

“The installation of the 7-MW version is an exciting step in its further development. Based on the reli-able technology and supply chain of our six megawatt machine we have improved our flagship wind turbine with stronger permanent magnets, optimized generator segments and upgraded converter and transformer units.

The gearless drive technology permits a compact design: Using Siemens’ Direct Drive technology the SWT-7.0-154 is the lightest turbine of its class. The combination of robust design and low weight reduces offshore infrastructure, installation and maintenance costs. Today’s cranes and installation vessels will be sufficient for its installation. With the SWT-6.0-154 Siemens experienced a tremendous success of its direct drive offshore technology.

Gearless Siemens turbines have been selected for around 10 projects. The first of them are already in oper-ation. The new Siemens offshore machine will strongly contribute to lowering the levelized cost for offshore electricity.
Source: http://www.windpowerengineering.com

WAVE/TIDAL ENERGY

New wave energy converter technology

Utility company Fortum Corporation, Finland, has announced a €24.5m wave energy technology project at Cornwall’s Wave Hub in the United Kingdom, involving partners including Plymouth and Exeter University and renewable power generation company Mojo Maritime. The CEFOW (Clean Energy From Ocean Waves) project has been granted funding from the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, and will use wave power converter specialist Wello’s Penguin wave energy converter technology. This turns wave power to electricity using continuous rotational movement without hydraulics, joints or gears, and with all parts sealed inside the floating hull.

As the unit uses the same components that are used in wind turbines, it should be cost competitive with offshore wind energy. It is also designed especially for use in rough conditions. “Wave Hub is offering an excellent testing and development environment for this particular technology. The grid-connected demonstration site is deep enough and Wello will be able to develop its device in all possible sea conditions. The concept of the Penguin device will remain the same, but we are putting efforts into optimising the software which is directly linked with power production. The wave energy converter itself will also see small improvements here and there,” said Mikko Huumo, at Fortum.
Source: http://www.theengineer.co.uk

Offshore tidal turbines

Researchers at Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) have built vertical axis tidal ­turbines for the very first time in the country. “For the very first time Iranian researchers have manufactured vertical axis tidal turbines with a ­completely domestic design,” said Shahram Derakhshan, at IUST. The ­laboratory samples of the turbines have successfully undergone the production phase sponsored by the IUST and the turbines are soon to be patented.

According to Derakhshan, each unit of these offshore tidal turbines produces 5 to 10 kilowatts energy, which together, will amount to several hundred units of energy. Iran is the vanguard of wind turbines and power plants technology in the Middle East. Currently, 660-kilowatt wind turbines are constructed by domestic engineers. In 2006, the country generated 45 megawatts of electricity from wind power (ranked 30th in the world).
Source: http://en.mehrnews.com

Novel marine turbine project

The European Marine Energy Centre, the United Kingdom, is developing and testing different concepts and designs of tidal current energy converters as source of renewable energy. Tidal energy is a predictable source of renewable energy due to it being generated by the continuous gravitational pull of the moon. The traditional exploitation of tidal energy is by means of a tidal barrages that extract the potential energy in tides. A more environmentally friendly and rapidly emerging way of harnessing the power from tides is by extracting the kinetic energy from the flow using tidal current energy converters.

The Hydro-Spinna is a unique horizontal axis tidal current turbine design. The design and parameters of the turbine have been previously presented. The performance of a 500mm diameter turbine with pitch to diame-ter ratio of 0.43 was assessed at different immersion depth in the university towing tank facility. The Hy-dro-Spinna displayed interesting results as the power coefficient of the turbine increases as the depth of immersion decreases as opposed to conventional tidal turbines. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results generated using a computational fluid dynamic software Star-CCM+ to replicate the behaviour of the Hydro-Spinna at different depths.
Source: http://www.ncl.ac.uk

New capricorn marine turbine system

Renewable Devices Marine, the United Kingdom, has developed a tidal turbine system that can be floated to the installation site, and work in both flow directions. The Capricorn turbine has a horizontal axis, contra-rotating, twin rotor architecture. Each rotor has three blades designed to be bi-directional in operation, which means that the turbine produces electricity both on ebb and flow tide. The bi-directional design eliminated the need for constructing the yaw mechanism, according to Renewable Devices Marine.

Capricorn Marine Turbine comprises Bk97 buoyancy control system that allows the turbine to be floated out to its deployment site. The system also provides a controllable method of sinking the turbine to its foundations, and lifting it for maintenance purposes using small and medium sized vessels. At full buoyancy the turbine floats, which allows the servicing of the turbine on the deployment site. According to Renewable Devices Marine, the Capricorn Marine Turbine could produce electricity at costs under GBP 128 MW/h, compared to the existing cost of energy from tidal generation estimated to be approximately GBP 300 MW/h.

The Renewables Devices group cosists of engineering companies that focus on the design of sustainable renewable energy technologies. Through Renewable Devices Ltd, RD Marine, RD Remote Power and RD Charitable Trust the group designs and manufactures renewable energy technologies. Contact: Renewable Devices Ltd, AeroMarine House, 15 Roslin Glen, Roslin Country Park, Midlothian, EH25 9PX, Scotland, UK. Tel: +44-131-448-0660; E-mail: info@renewabledevices.com.
Source: http://www.tidalenergytoday.com

New technology to harness power from wave energy

Wave energy developer Perpetuwave Power, Australia, has designed Xtracta wave energy technology for harnessing the electricity from wave energy. The Xtracta design is a Hybrid Attenuator – point absorber where sequential energy pulses provided by an attenuator are combined with a wide capture width of the device. The device comprises the light weight array of floats that harnesses the surface waves. The energy from the array is transferred via a cable to direct drive system. A one way clutch transfers the upward motion of the floats to drive a step up gear box which then drive the common generator to improve drive train and generator utilization, according to Perpetuwave Power.

The floats’ drive train can be serviced independently, without having to remove the other floats at the power plant. “We’re really excited by the real commercial opportunities the new Xtracta tech-nology opens the door to. We’re seeking interest from enabling partners to fast track our development program and crystalise this opportunity for wave energy to be an important contributor to our ­future electricity needs,” said Glen Dullaway, at Perpetuwave Power.
Source: http://www.tidalenergytoday.com

Wave energy device converts floats to electricity

Wavestar A/S, Denmark, has developed a wave energy device that converts the rising and falling movement of the floats to produce electricity. The company aims to develop a commercial wave energy device that would have the capacity of 600 kW, and would consist of 20 floats, each 5 m in diameter. The device would weigh 1600 t. The Wavestar device draws energy from wave power with floats that rise and fall with the up and down motion of waves.

The floats are attached by arms to a platform that stands on legs secured to the sea floor. The motion of the floats is transferred via hydraulics into the rotation of a generator, producing electricity. The company has installed the test section of the 600 kW machine at Hanstholm, Denmark in 2009. The prototype was made up of 2 floats, and its capacity was 110 KW. A bridge was built to access the machine, and the device was connected to the grid in February, 2010.

In 2013, Wavestar device was moved to the harbor of Hanstholm in order to expand the device and imple-ment new digital hydraulic system to increase the device’s efficiency, and to add two more floats. Late in 2014, the company announced that it is testing the new PTO (power take-off) system at Aalborg University, Denmark, which is expected to increase the efficiency of Wavestar wave energy device.
Source: http://www.tidalenergytoday.com

FUEL CELLS

Portable power units for passenger planes

Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT), Germany, and Diehl Aero-space GmbH, Germany, and the German Aerospace Center DLR, have developed portable power units that fit within an aircraft’s trolley carts that could help operators avoid the need for costly and time-consuming design changes. The technology was demonstrated for the first time at the Paris airshow, was fuelled by propylene glycol, a non-combustible, non-toxic liquid that is already used in aircraft as a coolant and de-icing agent.

A chemical system, the reformer, breaks down the liquid and extracts the hydrogen, which flows directly into the fuel cell and thus, energises it. The rerformer also transforms the carbon monoxide resulting from this hydrogen production into carbon dioxide. The research team has already produced a mock-up of the reformer and over the next few months, plans to assemble and test the very first prototype. According to the team, the technology could avoid the protracted issue of having to substantially redesign the passenger sections of aircraft cabins whilst meeting the growing need for on-board energy.
Source: http://www.theengineer.co.uk

A breakthrough fuel cells catalyst

A research team from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, have de-veloped a new fuel cell catalyst that is comprised of graphene. The catalyst may be a ­significant break-through in fuel cell technology, as it can be recharged as many as 100,000 times without losing any perfor-mance. This makes the catalyst significantly more capable than its more conventional counterparts, which are comprised primarily of platinum. The research team is working to draw more attention to the potential of graphene and how it can be used to improve fuel cells.

Platinum has proven that it is somewhat resistant to the corrosive processes that occur within a fuel cell, but finding alternatives to platinum is becoming more important, as those interested in renewable energy want fuel cells to be less expensive. Graphene is an allotrope of carbon and takes the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale lattice. The material is quite durable and can conduct electricity in a relatively efficient manner.

Researchers from around the world have considered using graphene as a replacement for platinum cata-lysts, but more experimentation must be done in order for this material to be considered commercially viable. Fuel cell technology is gaining more attention as an alternative to conventional forms of energy. These energy systems have become particularly popular in the auto industry, where automakers are using them to produce a new generation of vehicles that do not produce harmful emissions.
Source: http://www.hydrogenfuelnews.com

Energy efficient durable fuel cell stacks

Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan, and Japan Fine Ceramics Center (JFCC), have developed a new ob-servation technique that allows researchers to monitor the behavior of nanometer-sized particles of platinum during chemical reactions in fuel cells, so that the processes leading to reduced catalytic reactivity can be observed. Platinium is an essential catalyst for the electricity-producing chemical reactions occurring be-tween oxygen and hydrogen in fuel cell stacks. Reduced reactivity is the result of ‘coarsening’ of platinium nanoparticles – a process whereby the nanoparticles increase in size and decrease in surface area.

Up until now, however, it has not been possible to observe the processes leading to coarsening, making it difficult to analyze the root causes. The new observation method can enable discovery of the points on the carbon carrier where platinum coarsens, as well as level of voltage output during the coarsening process. The method can also help determine the different characteristics of various types of carrier materials. This all-aspect analysis can provide direction to R&D focused on improving the performance and durability of the platinum catalyst, and of the fuel cell stack.

The conventional method of platinium nanoparticle observation is a fixed-point comparison of pre-reaction platinium particles with post-reaction particles. Through this method, it was discovered that post-reaction platinium nanoparticles are coarser with reduced reactivity. But, the causes of this reduction can only be hypothesized due to the inability to observe the behavioral processes leading up to the coarsening. In contrast, the new observation technique involves a new scaled-down observable sample that can simulate the exact environment and conditions occurring in fuel cells.
Source: http://www.autocarpro.in

HYDROGEN ENERGY

Project may cut fuel expense

Academicians at Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU), India, are working on a project that just might cut fuel expense to Rs 20 a litre! With hydrogen fuelled cars likely to be the mode of transport in the future, the far-sighted researchers at the Solar Research and Development Centre (SRDC) has fabricated a simple non-toxic device using copper oxide that harnesses solar power to break water mol-ecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is then fed into a fuel cell that converts the gas to electricity to power the car. Department head Prof Indrajit Mukhopadhyay have filed a patent. In near future, this device is likely to replace conventional water electrolysis system of producing hydrogen using expensive grid electricity.

“The current technique of using grid electricity to generate hydrogen and oxygen is expensive. Grid line technique generates hydrogen that costs $1 or Rs 60 approx per litre. It is also a non-green pro-cess. However, solar hydrogen can be generated for only Rs 20 a litre and uses clean technology.” said Prof Mukhopadhyay. This finding will boost fuel cell technology that generates electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation – while emitting nothing but water. In India, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has planned to introduce a few buses driven by fuel cell. What makes this process cheaper, is use of low-cost inorganic material.

Till now, other attempts to produce devices that could use sunlight to split water have relied on corrosive solutions or on relatively rare and expensive materials such as platinum. The PDPU method will help produce hydrogen for not more than Rs 20 per litre boosting the use of this gas as an alternative fuel for hybrid vehicles, and maybe even completely substituting fossil fuel products like petrol and diesel. As per EERI roadmap of 2013, the global target of hydrogen production by 2020 has been set to $1 per kg. However, hydrogen produces about 3 times more energy than petrol and about four times that of diesel. PDPU researchers create device to produce cheaper hydrogen using copper oxide. This can boost use of gas as alternative fuel for hybrid vehicles and may substitute fuel like petrol and diesel.
Source: http://www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com

Water-based process for renewable hydrogen

HyperSolar, Inc., the United States, has developed a low-cost, water-based manufacturing process. This innovative process positions the Company to increase the voltage needed to produce renewable hydrogen using only sunlight. HyperSolar technology is based on the development of a process that mimics artificial photosynthesis, requiring only sunlight to separate water from hydrogen. This process generally requires voltages of more than 1.5 volts (V), yet current commercially available low-cost silicon solar cells can achieve only 0.7V. In order to break this voltage barrier, HyperSolar is developing a technology that will replace the conventional and expensive vapor deposition process required to make the solar cell component.

To address this challenge, the Company’s research team at the University of Iowa (“UOI”), the United States, has developed an innovative and patent protected water-based process where solar cell materials are stacked on top of each other literally by “dipping” into low-cost beakers of solutions containing appropriate chemistries. This significant achievement relies on the water-based chemistries used to produce this solar cell component, one that requires inexpensive earth abundant materials, rather than rare earth materials. This recent breakthrough in the manufacturing process is believed to represent a major hurdle crossed towards achieving a prototype solar driven hydrogen production unit with photovoltage more than 1.5V.

Conventional solar-powered water electrolyzers used to produce hydrogen are considered expensive and not viable for large-scale commercialization. However, HyperSolar’s solar hydrogen production unit can theoretically be manufactured in large scale. “This breakthrough within the manufacturing process strengthens the Company’s key objectives of driving down cost while improving efficiency. By ad-dressing the fundamentals of production, HyperSolar has taken a great leap forward as a potential solution for producing renewable hydrogen at or near the point of distribution,” said Tim Young, at HyperSolar. Contact: HyperSolar, Inc., 32 E. Micheltorena, Suite A, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA. Tel: +1-805-966-6566; E-mail: info@hypersolar.com.
Source: http://www.azonano.com

Engineers create hydrogen fueled prototype car

A team of top engineers at the University of Sunderland’s Institute for Automotive and Manufac-turing Advanced Practice (AMAP), the United Kingdom, has created a prototype car, with an engine adapted to mix hydrogen with traditional fuel, to demonstrate the technology in practice as part of an EU project with Gateshead College, the United Kingdom. The purpose of AMAP’s research is to reduce the damage caused by fossil fuels in automotives, with their harmful impact on health and the environment. Early findings of the hydrogen-fuelled vehicle in action have revealed reductions in environmental impact and improvements in fuel economy. Results of the research were shared at the Hydrogen Transport Economy (HyTrEc) Conference in Scotland on 20-21 May 2015.

In the conference delegates from industry, government, public sector and academia met and discussed the next steps for the sector. Delegates included project partners and organisations such as Hyundai, the United Kingdom, the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, UK H2 Mobility and the German National Hydrogen Organisation. “We estimated the range of the hydrogen tank in the demonstrator vehicle to be 120 miles with a 50/50 petrol/hydrogen mix, which is more than enough to carry out deliveries around a city during one day. Mixing hydrogen into the fuel stream dramatically improves emissions performance and range per tank of fuel. This is important not only for environmental reasons but because this element of the fuel stream is the most heavily taxed,” said Dirk Kok, at AMAP.

Roger O’Brien, at the University of Sunderland added: “The relatively low cost of the conversion suggests that this may prove a viable option for cleaning up petrol tailpipe emissions. We are considering combining this with other technologies in future to provide for methods of switching to lower emission regimes in urban and city centre areas -where stop-start driving is even more polluting. There are still infrastructure issues of course, but for fleet operators, who are doing routes from a central hub or depot, the technology we have used could be a deployable solution very quickly and easily.”
Source: https://www.bdaily.co.uk

More hydrogen with new nanoparticles

Scientists from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), Germany, have successfully synthesized iron-nickel oxide nanoparticles that allows for the hydrogen production process to be ten times more efficient than existing solutions. The future of renewable energy is closely linked to how efficiently it is generated and then stored for future use. One promising storage medium is hydrogen. It is produced using conventional water sources and can be utilized as an energy source as needed. Its electro-chemical preparation comprises two coupled reactions. In the first reaction, water is oxidized, producing oxygen and electrons. In the second reaction, these ­electrons reduce water ­resulting in the formation of hydrogen gas.

If the electrons are supplied in a sufficient amount during this second step, this process proceeds smoothly. However, it is typically limited by the water oxidation step. Currently, many scientists are investigating the so-called “catalysts materials” to facilitate this reaction. Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Germany, chemists Prof. Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing and Prof. Thomas Bein, have developed nanoparticles composed of nickel-iron oxide, which catalyze water oxidation process up to ten times more efficient than comparable compounds. Additionally, these particles are simple to synthesize, inexpensive to produce, and are universally applicable.

The exceptional performance of nanoparticles in water oxidation reactions results from the combination of iron and nickel along with extremely small particle size and their high crystallinity. The characterization of the structure, particularly the iron distribution in such small particles represents a major challenge and requires advanced analytical methods. The particles are very user-friendly and multifunctional. A special feature of the synthesis is that it provides easily dispersible nanocrystals, which is beneficial for the fabrication of various catalytically active nanostructures. Alternatively, they can be distributed as individual particles, which is desirable for the development of more complex catalytic systems.
Source: http://www.nanowerk.com

BIOFUEL/BIOMASS ENERGY

Researchers produce biodiesel from used oil

Researchers from Modern College of Pune, India, have produced biodiesel from used cooking oil, which would otherwise be thrown away by the contractor of their college canteen. While many commercial kitchens heat oil till a point at which it is not useful for cooking anymore, consumption of dishes made from excessive heating of oil increases levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in blood and thus increases the risk of heart diseases. But finding a healthy, economic and environment-friendly utility to such oil is certainly an achievement. Biodiesel’s characteristics like nontoxic and biodegradable in nature, and it being a fuel product that doesn’t emit sulphur into earth’s atmosphere makes it environment-friendly.

Dr. Santosh Gopale who guided this project said, “We have created this biodiesel through the transesterification process. Initially, we have tested with a biodiesel blend of 60% biodiesel and 40 % petroleum diesel and the generator ran successfully. Our Next step is to test it with 100% of biodiesel and we are confident of achieving positive results”. Ganesh Shinde, a botany student, who was already researching on bioenergy cultivation concepts and on the lookout for a proper raw material, took up this project with an idea that used oil could also carry the properties that could yield bio-fuel.
Source: http://www.greenoptimistic.com

Innovative biodigester turns trash into biofuel

HomeBioGas, Israel, has developed an outdoor biodigester ‘TevaGas’ (TG) units to generate clean energy and fertilizer through anaerobic digestion of organic waste, such as food and animal manure. A single unit produces enough clean cooking gas daily for three meal and 10 liters of organic liquid fertilizer. The backyard units, which come in easy-to-assemble kits, are currently being used in the Israeli Bedouin community of Umm Batin to convert trash into biogas for cooking, heating and lighting, and also organic liquid crop fertilizer. The biodigesters caught the attention of United Nations’ Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon when he visited Israeli President Reuven Rivlin last October during Sukkot and saw a demonstration of a machine used by Bedouin families.

HomeBioGas Marketing Director Ami Amir said, He asked us to be in touch with the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization to see where and when our systems could be deployed. HomeBioGas has received inquiries from many countries interested in their innovative product. They re-ceived orders from distributors in Australia, Nigeria and Costa Rica to set up demo installations. The Israeli government purchased the TevaGas units for Umm Batin and another Bedouin community in the Negev.

New revolutionary microbe for biofuel production

Biofuels pioneer Mascoma LLC, the Unites States, and the US Department of Energy’s BioEn-ergy Science Center (BESC), have developed a revolutionary strain of yeast that could help significantly accelerate the development of biofuels from nonfood plant matter. The approach could provide a pathway to eventual expansion of biofuels production beyond the current output limited to ethanol derived from corn. C5 FUEL™, engineered by researchers at Mascoma and BESC, features fermentation and ethanol yields that set a new standard for conversion of biomass sugars from pretreated corn stover – the non-edible portion of corn crops such as the stalk – converting up to 97 percent of the plant sugars into fuel.

Researchers announced that while conventional yeast leaves more than one-third of the biomass sugars unused in the form of xylose, Mascoma’s C5 FUEL™ efficiently converts this xylose into ethanol, and it accomplishes this feat in less than 48 hours. “The ability to partner the combined expertise at Mascoma and BESC in engineering microbes to release and convert sugars from lignocellulosic biomass has greatly accelerated the translation of basic research outcomes to a commercial product,” said Paul Gilna at BESC. Gilna noted that this success and continued efforts through BESC could go a long way toward reducing the cost of ethanol and growing the number of commercial-level ethanol production plants. A key focus of BESC is to use basic research capabilities and expertise to improve cost competitiveness.

Although cellulosic biomass such as corn stover, wheat straw and bagasse (the fibrous remains after sugar is extracted from sugarcane or sorghum) is abundant and cheap, because of recalcitrance, a plant’s resistance to releasing sugars for conversion to alcohol. However, Mascoma’s new strain of yeast, which is one of many strains Mascoma developed by BESC has proved highly effective at xylose conversion. While most processing methods simply convert cellulose to sugar, this new approach also converts hemicellulose, which significantly increases overall sugar yield and thereby increases the level of ethanol ­produced. In fact, the new strain of yeast simultaneously yields 97 percent conversion of xylose and glucose in a shorter period of time than existing approaches.
Source: http://www.ornl.gov

Researchers develop new method of making biofuel

Researchers at National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (NPUST), Taiwan province of China, have developed a system that uses microalgae cultivated in partially treated wastewater as a feed-stock for biomedicine and biofuel production, providing huge business opportunities. It took the team 5 years to develop the microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production system, which won the top prize in the university category in a national energy innovation competition last year. The technology has also begun attracting attention from the academic and business sectors from home and abroad, said Tsai Wen-tien at NPUST.

Microalgae are a group of unicellular or simple multicellular fast growing photosynthetic microorganisms that live on carbon dioxide (CO2) from different sources, including industrial exhaust gases and soluble carbonate salts. The team cultivated the microalgae by coupling a wastewater treatment process with an algal photo bioreactor for nutrient removal and biomass production, using enriched CO2 from industrial exhaust gases. Like other plants and organisms, microalgae use photosynthesis to turn light, carbon dioxide and a few nutrients into plant oils, carbohydrates and proteins that make up their cell structure. The technology will allow the production of not only biodiesel, but also health supplements such as fish oil, and cosmetic additives, as well as fishing lures and bait.

The cost of using wastewater and exhaust gases for the cultivation of microalgae is low and every 100 metric tons of waste water can produce about 70 kilograms of microalgae. Microalgae not only captures CO2 but also creates prolific microalgal cultures that can be used in the production of air and water purifiers. Meanwhile, microalgae grows fast and consumes CO2 and emits oxygen as it does so, helping to reduce the total amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Moreover, microalgae can grow on marginal or non-crop land, so does not compete with valuable agricultural land.
Source: http://www.focustaiwan.tw

Improved biodiesel from fish and cooking oil

Researchers from Granada University, Spain, and Campina University, Brazil, have succeeded in developing a new type of biodiesel that is more resistant to oxidation from mixing fish oil with cooking oil. In their work, published in the journal Fuel Processing Technology, scientists studied the ­properties of mixtures made from fish oil, palm oil and cooking oil. They combined 13 different mixtures of these types of oils in different proportions, in addition to biodiesel from pure oils and determined that biodiesel with improved properties corresponded to a mixture composed of 42.1 per cent of fish oil and 57.9 per cent of cooking oil.

The new biodiesel production was carried out in two stages: acid esterification and basic trans-esterification. Biodiesel is a type of biofuel obtained from different kinds of oil and/or fat, generally by the trans-esterification process. In the production process, basic catalysts such as sodium hydroxide, and inex-pensive alcohol varieties, like methanol, are usually used. So far, biodiesel with good properties has been obtained from fish oil, but it had a lower oxidative stability due to its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. “Biodiesel oxidation is undesirable because it increases viscosity and leads to the formation of insoluble substances, which may cause clogging of pumps and pipes,” said Pedro Jesus Garcia Moreno, at Granada University.

Biodiesel with high oxidation stability was obtained with pure palm oil due to its high content of saturated fatty acids. Cooking oil has a higher oxidative stability than fish oil and its use for biodiesel production has the advantage that it is cheap raw material. Fish oil extracted from byproducts may have high acidity and/or be strongly oxidized, mainly due to the rapid deterioration of this feedstock due to enzymes and bacteria. “In addition, this oil may have a low content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (<10%), which would result in low productivity in the process of obtaining concentrated omega 3. Thus, when it presents such characteristics, fish oil is a product offering reduced interest for food and pharmaceutical uses,” said Moreno.
Source: http://www.fis.com

RECENT PUBLICATIONS

World Energy Outlook Special Report 2015: Energy and Climate Change

This report presents a detailed first assessment of the energy sector impact of known and signalled national climate pledges for COP21. It proposes a bridging strategy to deliver a near-term peak in global energy-related greenhouse-gas emissions, based on five pragmatic measures that can advance climate goals through the energy sector without blunting economic growth. The report also highlights the urgent need to accelerate the development of emerging technologies that are, ultimately, essential to transforming the global energy system into one that is consistent with the world’s climate goals.

World Energy Outlook 2014

Bringing together the latest data and policy developments, the WEO-2014 presents up to date projec-tions of energy trends for the first time through to 2040. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy effi-ciency are covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewa-ble energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

For the above two publications, contact: International Energy Agency, 9, rue de la Fédération, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France. Tel: +33-140-576-500; Fax: +33-140-576-509; E-mail: info@iea.org

Understanding Wind Power Technology: Theory, Deployment and Optimisation

Designed to meet the training needs of wind engineers, this book puts wind energy in context, from the natural resource to the assessment of cost effectiveness and bridges the gap between theory and practice. The thorough coverage spans the scientific basics, practical implementations and the modern state of technology used in onshore and offshore wind farms for electricity generation. The book conveys the importance of wind energy in the international energy-policy debate, and offers clear insight into the subject for postgraduates and final year undergraduate students studying all aspects of wind engineering.

Contact: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01 Solaris South Tower Singapore 138628. Tel: +65-6643-8333; Fax: +65-6643-8397; E-mail: csd_ord@wiley.com


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