VATIS Update Waste Management . Apr-Jun 2014

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Waste Management Apr-Jun 2014

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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49 million tonnes of e-waste generated in 2012

According to researchers at StEP, Germany, used and no longer sell-able electronics have to go somewhere and all too often that means more devices in landfills. Most people understand that recycling is a better option than filling up landfills but it is not always easy to recycle home appliances and some consumer electronics devices. This problem has resulted in 49 million tonnes of e-waste.

That data, as frightening as it may be, was for 2012 and the prevalence of electronics around the world has only become more obvious since then. Included in e-waste is almost any electronic device. Everything from fridges to microwaves to smartphones are included in that statistic but 49 million tonnes is a horrific figure no matter how you look at it.

Out of the top 10 countries, the US generated the most waste with 9.4 million tonnes and in second place, China generated 7.3 tonnes even though its population is three times that of the US. An even worse figure is the per capita production of e-waste each year. Based upon StEP’s data, each American created 29.8 Kgs of waste whereas individuals in China created just 5.4 Kgs of waste.

Global e-scrap volume to triple by 2019

According to a new report published by Transparency Market Research, the United States, the global e-scrap market will reach a value of US$ 46 billion (Euro 33 billion) by 2019. The report valued the market at US$ 9.8 billion in 2012 and predicts an increase of 23% over the next six years, taking it to US$ 41 billion by 2019. In terms of volume, the market was 48 million tonnes in 2012 and it is estimated will be 141 million tonnes by 2019.

Computers formed the largest segment of electronic products being recycled in 2012 and are expected to maintain their dominance in the future, thanks to the speed of microchip developments and a decrease in computers’ average life cycle. Take-back programmes launched by major mobile phone producers are expected boost this segment. The research indicates that Asia will be the fastest growing market for electronics recycling in coming years.

Plastic scrap recycled in China

About 30% of plastic scrap have been recycled in China, up from 20% in 2010, said the China Scrap Plastics Association. In 2013, China recycled about 28 million tonnes of plastic scrap that it produced. From 2006 to 2010, only about 46 million tonnes of plastic scrap were recycled, according to the association. China is one of the world’s biggest plastic producer and consumption market. It needs about 80 million tonnes of plastic a year, which means the demand of 240 million tonnes of crude oil. Recycling plastic scrap is considered an effective way to reduce the use of crude oil. To recycle one tonne of scrap plastics means to save six tonnes of oil supply. Plus about 8 million tonnes of scrap plastic imported from aboard, the country’s recycling business has saved about 216 million tonnes of oil supply last year.

Despite notable profits and benefits in sustainable development, the plastic recycling industry stirs concerns for air and water pollution. Low-level recycling, such as simple burning, might emit toxic substance. So far the country has about 3,000 recycling businesses of different sizes and capacities. “Some are big companies with good technologies, but the rest are small workshops whose operation causes environment concerns,” said Du Huanzheng, chairman of the association. The industry should raise the benchmark of technical and environmental management and impose stricter self-discipline, he said. The association is working on an industrial regulation on qualifications of a recycling business and will issue it next year, Du said.

Philippines concerns over disposal of ODS waste

With the carbon credit market down, the Ozone Desk of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ Environmental Management Bureau (DENR-EMB), Philippines, has faced with the challenge of disposing waste from ozone-depleting substances (ODS) across the country. The Philippines, a signatory to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) has only one collection and storage facility and still has no disposal facility of its own for ODS waste.

The destruction of ODS costs about $6 per kilogram, excluding transport costs. ODS waste needs to be “exported” to countries with ODS disposal facilities. Charged against the government, this would entail additional costs, funding of which would burden the DENR. Under the Montreal Protocol, the Philippines is committed to eliminating or phasing out ODS.

As part of the phase-out plan, the DENR-EMB is targeting to phase-out hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) by 2040. It has successfully phased-out chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) and other ODS in 2010, but recent survey and monitoring conducted by the DENR in 2013 revealed that there are car air conditioning and chiller service centres, as well as dealers that still sell CFCs, indicating possible smuggling of the banned substances. “We are in the process of studying a possible sustainable disposal system because the carbon credit market is down,” said Ella Deocadiz, at DENR-EMB.

China plans absolute CO2 cap from 2016

China, the world’s biggest emitter of climate-changing greenhouse gases, will set an absolute cap on its CO2 emissions from 2016. “The target will be written into China’s next five-year plan, which comes into force in 2016,” said He Jiankun, chairman of China’s Advisory Committee on Climate Change.

The government will use two ways to control CO2 emissions in the next five-year plan, by intensity and an absolute cap. The move will be the first time China puts absolute limits on its CO2 emissions, which have soared 50% since 2005. He’s statement came the day after the United States, the world’s second-biggest emitter, for the first time announced plans to rein in carbon emissions from its power sector, a move the Obama administration hopes can inject ambition into slow-moving international climate talks.

Indian waste management survey

A survey by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India, has found that almost 90% felt that improper waste management in India posed a moderate to severe health risk. The Environmental Survey 2014 was initiated to gauge the perception, awareness, opinion and behaviour of people towards environment in India and conducted by independent, not-for-profit research institute TERI. The organisation explained that this year the survey covered eight cities in India. The focus of the survey was on the general environment, and in particular, water and waste related issues.

Overall, a large majority felt that air quality had worsened and the number of bird species in their cities had declined. However, a majority of people felt that drinking water availability and quality as well as waste management in their cities had improved. A vast majority of respondents (90%) felt that climate change was a reality and a majority (over 80%) of those felt that average temperatures had risen and rainfall levels had gone down over time – 63% of total respondents. Teri also noted that a higher proportion of women as compared to men, felt that the objectives of environmental protection and development went hand in hand.

TERI explained that the survey had a sample of 11,214 citizens spread across the selected urban agglomerates of India. It was conducted between December, 2013 and February, 2014, through face-to-face interviews in each city using a standardized questionnaire. Around 43% of respondents came from low income localities, 24% from middle income localities and 33% from high income localities.

PPP model to convert waste into energy in India

A high-level task force, headed by the planning commission member Mr. K. Kasturirangan, has submitted its report highlighting the ways and means to convert municipal waste into energy and pitched for involving private players in a big way for achieving the goal of sustainable waste management in India. The report – Waste to Energy – has strongly recommended Public Private Partnership (PPP) as a mode of service delivery to achieve the target set for Sustainable Waste Management. A model scheme has also been detailed for setting up ‘Waste to Energy’ projects through PPP mode, including a viability gap funding up to 40%.

It also emphasized on the need for an integrated approach towards Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management, stressing reduction and segregation of waste at source and also efficient utilization of various components of the waste. “It emphasizes setting up centralised or decentralised waste processing facilities keeping in view the quantity and quality of waste generated and financial viability of the processing technology”, said a government note on the report of the task force.

The Task Force has been constituted under Kasturirangan to identify technically feasible, financially affordable and environmentally sound processing and disposal technologies for MSW. Urban India currently generates 170,000 tonnes of MSW each day. Only 19% of this waste is treated and rest goes to dump sites causing serious problems to health and environment. Keeping in view the current situation, the report provided guidance for the selection of appropriate technology. It emphasized on converting the combustible waste into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) to be used in power plants based on RDF. The report has been sent to the chief ministers of all the states for use as a guideline document for integrated waste management.

A collaboration for promotion of clean technology

Islamabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), Pakistan, and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), have deliberated to collaborate for promoting clean technology innovations in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and start-up businesses. The initiative is the part of a three years Global Cleantech Innovation Programme (GCIP), currently running in six countries including Pakistan and is aimed at developing a sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystem by supporting clean technology innovations in SMEs and start up entrepreneurs in order to maximise their opportunities to achieve sustainable commercial success.

ICCI will cooperate with UNIDO to organise a Clean Technology Competition inviting Pakistani entrepreneurs to come up with best business ideas and prototypes in the field of renewable energy, waste to energy, energy efficiency and water efficiency in order to today’s most pressing energy, environmental and economic challenges. The 4 best business ideas will receive $25,000 (cash and services) while the national winner of the competition will receive $30,000 and will be funded to participate in the Cleantech Open’s Annual Global Forum to be held in the United States, in November 2014.

ICCI President Shaban Khalid said, “Promoting entrepreneurship especially in youth was the high priority on ICCI’s agenda of activities.” He stressed that maximum number of entrepreneurs should participate in the competition as it would provide them great networking opportunities, access to investors and potential customers, participation in clean technologies and business related workshops, events and meetings and get chance to work with professional mentors and experts to learn tools and techniques for achieving better success in business.

New road surfacing technique

Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co., Republic of Korea, has announced that it has developed a new eco-friendly technique to pave roads, using scrapped car parts and electric furnace slag. Republic of Korea’s No. 1 builder said it carried out joint research with Hyundai Motor Co., Kia Motors Corp. and Hyundai Steel, to replace the use of sand and limestone with industrial by-products from car glass and electric arc furnaces, including slag — a leftover material after coal is smelted in an electric furnace.

It added the production process to turn the materials into asphalt can be attained at a relatively low temperature of 120°C, compared to the more conventional 150-160°C. Lower heat translates into less energy used, bringing down production costs. “Lower heat used also means less greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, while the overall production process can allow effective recycling of glass from cars and furnace slag,” the company said.

Solid waste plants in Viet Nam

Ha Noi, Viet Nam, has announced that it will build nine new solid-waste treatment plants and improve the capacity of 8 existing plants in the city by 2030. The total area of the 17 plants were estimated to be built over more than 580 hectares. “It is the aim of the city’s plan to treat solid waste in moving towards fulfilling the vision toward 2050,” said Hoang Trung Hai, Deputy Prime Minister.

As part of the plan, a forecast said that about 18,900 tonnes of solid waste would need to be processed daily in the city by 2030. The solid waste was mainly discharged from households, industrial parks, construction sites and hospitals. It was targeted that 90%of the total household solid waste and 100% of medical solid waste in urban areas would be collected and treated by 2030, Hai said.

According to Hai, domestic technologies, which saved energy and protects the environment, would be preferred to be used in treating solid waste. Depending on the type of solid wastes, they would be burnt, recycled or hygienically buried. However, the goal is to minimize the burying of solid waste in order to save land and reduce environmental pollution.


Researchers develop recyclable thermoset plastics

Researchers from IBM Almaden Research Center, the University of California (UC), the United States, the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Netherlands, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia, have developed the first working method to produce thermoset plastics that can be recycled. Thermoset plastics are a common component of unrecoverable plastic across the world. The development has been reported in the May edition of the journal Science. Thermoset plastics and polymers were thought to be an irreversible reaction at one time. The extent of the cross linking between the individual units of the polymer has been an obstacle to recycling for decades.

However, the researchers have developed a thermoset technology that is readily amenable to conversion back to the original parts of the polymer. The material can be made in one vessel. The conversion back to a reusable state can be produced with a simple addition of a strong acid with a pH less than two. The original components of the new thermoset plastic are regenerated at acidity that plastics will not encounter in normal use. An added advantage of the new chemistry is the plastics are self-healing. Self-healing means that small damage to the plastic is repaired by the polymer.

This development heralds a new age of plastic chemistry. Recyclable thermosets that replace all presently used thermoset plastics can be adapted from this initial basis. The manufacturer gets the benefit of not making new product. The planet gets the benefit of less plastic waste. The consumer should eventually receive a lower cost as a benefit of this new technology.

New technology for degassing of plastic waste

Starlinger, Austria, has developed recoSTAR C-VAC technology to ensure efficient filtration, degassing and compounding of highly-contaminated and heavily-printed plastic waste, such as film. The new C-VAC module is an integrated but independent extrusion module which can be added to every Starlinger recoSTAR recycling extruder. According to Starlinger, “By using a main extruder plus the C-VAC module with degassing extruder and two degassing ports, excellent degassing performance is achieved. Due to the two separate extruder drives, the extruder speeds can be adjusted independently from each other according to material requirements.”

While compounding is usually done separately, the C-VAC module enables recycling and compounding to be done in a single step. The equipment size range varies from an output of 150 kg to 1300 kg per hour. Contact: Starlinger, Sonnenuhrgasse 4, 1060 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43-1-599-550; E-mail:

Recycled carbon fibre nonwovens

Nonwoven manufacturer Technical Fibre Products (TFP), the United Kingdom, has extended its current range to include a range of recycled carbon fibre veils and mats. It has invested in developing the technology necessary to process carbon fibre recycled from various manufacturing processes and composite structures. This capability has been progressed over a number of years through working alongside partners such as Boeing, Ford, Toho Tenax and the University of Nottingham, the United Kingdom, as part of the UK’s Technology Strategy Board funded projects, to develop routes for carbon fibre recycling and processing.

As a result TFP has developed the dispersion and processing of single filament recycled carbon fibre for conversion into high quality wet-laid nonwovens. TFP said that this capability enables it to both support the world’s leading carbon fibre manufacturers in the utilisation of their reclaimed fibre and to provide a means to close the loop on composite recycling and re-use. TFP’s recycled carbon nonwovens can be produced from fibre reclaimed from composites by pyrolysis and integrated into a composite structure as a surfacing or semi-structural layer, ultimately providing a viable route for the recycling of fibres previously considered as waste.

Adam Black, Business Development Director at TFP said, “The long term investment in this technology has enabled the development of a range of recycled carbon fibre veils and mats which offer comparable properties and quality to those manufactured with virgin fibre, with the added benefit of environmental sustainability. These new materials provide the industry with the means to demonstrate environmental responsibility without compromising on performance, and have already been used by some customers to manufacture components with excellent results.”

Tire recycling start-up wins tech award

Tyromer Inc., the United States, a company in the process of rubber recycling technology, developed by researchers at the University of Waterloo (UW), the United States, has won a tech start-up award for its clean, green and cheap way to recycle tires. The award was one of 50 given out by The Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE), a non-profit group committed to entrepreneurship. It’s a machine that takes rubber crumbs, which are shredded bits of scrap tire, and turns them back into rubber that can be used to make more tires. The recycling process was invented by UW chemical engineering professor Costas Tzoganakis.

Tzoganakis’s process of recycling rubber is cheap, has a long shelf-life and does not use any chemicals. “It is the first time in the world that this is being done without the use of chemical solvents,” said Sam Visaisouk, the CEO of Tyromer Inc. Rubber is one of few materials that can’t be completely broken down and reused. That is because it is made of links of sulphur that are hard to dissolve without chemicals. But chemical solvents leave a harmful residue, permanent smell and they don’t last long. The chemical process of reclaiming rubber is banned in North America and the European Union but is often used in China.

Tzoganakis’s process uses carbon dioxide to break down the sulphur instead of chemicals. Once the rubber crumbs are fed into the machine, a tiny amount of liquid carbon dioxide is injected into the material. Then once the links are broken through a process known as devulcanization, the rubber is in a malleable form again so it can be reused to make anything such as new tires. “We can offer this as a solution to the entire world,” Visaisouk said. Tyromer Inc. is in the process of starting their first production line with local rubber compounding companies. Within the year, they hope to have the template of their final product: a machine that can turn scrap tires back into rubber. The machine will cost $2 to $3 million when it is ready to put on the market.

Extrusion method for post-consumer recycled film

Macro Engineering, Canada, has developed and patented a new process to produce trash bags using high percentages of post-consumer materials. With conventional methods for producing bags with high amounts of recycled material, the reclaim is normally buried in the core layer of a coextruded structure between skin layers of mostly-virgin material. The issue with this method is that defects, such as gels/pinholes, that may originate from impurities in the recycled materials of the core layer tend to migrate through all layers of the structure. Macro’s process is to create a two-ply film by joining two films immediately after extrusion. This configuration adds strength to the overall film structure as weak spots in each layer are reinforced by the complimentary layer.

To block the film, two methods can be employed. The first is a conventional blown film extrusion setup where the bubble is collapsed before the melt cools. This method creates a single sheet. The second is by extruding through a dual-orifice blown film die and having the two films join which form a collapsed tube. Macro has tested blends of post-consumer recycled materials with virgin resins as well as structures comprised of 100% in-house scrap. The tests found that both tear strength and tensile strength were consistently better, by 25% over a single layer film structure. The technology will allow a range of 0.5% to 100% reclaimed plastic material to make up the final film structure and is best suited for industrial applications that utilise thicker gauges.


Refined sorting system for used electronics

Sorting specialist Refind Technologies, Sweden, has launched a new system platform containing both software and equipment components for custom development of ‘advanced identification’ and sorting solutions for end-of-life and used electronics. The Refind Classifier Platform is based on ‘proven applications’ in waste battery and e-waste sorting, and it is capable of recognising individual products. According to Refind, in a stream of widely-varied electronic devices, the system can determine that a certain phone is a Nokia Lumia 1020. Any damage, such as a broken screen, will also be registered to allow automatic triage, billing and greater sorting efficiency.

A previous system served specifically the sorting of waste portable batteries at a rate of more than 15 per second whereas the latest version is said to be suitable for ‘basically any stream of products or material’. The software components are both delivered as part of the systems and as a cloud service which is supported and ‘updated continuously’ by Refind. “Used products are treated as end-of-life items far too early. And lack of efficient ways for collection and sorting is a strongly contributing reason for this. We now provide the necessary tools to real frontrunners in recycling and reverse logistics to build up competitive solutions which will improve their position,” said Hans Eric Melin, CEO of Refind.

New adhesive system makes a recyclable circuit board

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), In2Tec and Gwent Electronic Materials, the United Kingdom, have devised an adhesive that helps manufacturers take apart electronic circuit boards and reuse their components to make new components. They call it ReUse – Reusable, Unzippable, Sustainable Electronics. Funded by the UK government’s Technology Strategy Board with a view to help industry conform to European electronic waste regulation, these British companies have developed a 90% recyclable and reusable circuit board, whose components can be easily separated by soaking in hot water.

“Existing electronic circuit assemblies are based on reinforced epoxy glass systems and solder. A circuit board itself is a significant part of a final product but it’s made with a thermoset of glass that isn’t easily recyclable,” said Chris Hunt, at NPL. The result was a new adhesive and ink system, which allows the team to put components onto a thermoplastic substrate with a conductive adhesive and make a circuit. A substrate is a solid onto which another solid is applied and that solid adheres to the first. A thermoplastic is something quite pliable at high temperatures but cools down to a rigid solid. The thermoplastic substrate produced by the team can be recycled.

The novelty of what NPL and its partners have developed is demonstrated when a circuit is exposed to water that is just about boiling. In the presence of hot water the ink and the adhesive soften so significantly that all the components on the circuit are easily scraped off with a business card and can be reused for new circuits. It seems laborious and Hunt agrees that they’ve a while to go before their innovation becomes scaleable for use by the likes of Apple or larger electronics manufacturers. NPL and its partners said they haven’t used any restricted elements or compounds and around 90% of what they have constructed can be reused.

A process to recover gold from e-waste

Scientists at the National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), a Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) lab, India, have successfully developed the process of extracting gold from electronic waste like used mobile phones, medical equipment and telecommunication devices to protect environment and conserve the natural resources and energy. Precious metals are used widely in electronic appliances such as in printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones, motherboard of computers and connectors. Scientists feel that in order to meet the increasing demands and conserve resources, it is necessary to recycle and develop e-waste as an alternate source of these metals.

“We have various collaborations with national and international research institutes and companies for development of processes for recovery of various metals from e-waste. We started working on this gold recovery process development nearly two years back. Now we have even transferred the technological know-how to ADV Metal Combine Pvt. Ltd., India, and they have been working on it successfully,” said Dr. Manis Kumar Jha, lead scientist at NML.

Vinayachal Kishore, MD of ADV Metals, said, “We procured the technology more than a year ago and used it for our unit in Chhattisgarh, India. The technology works successfully. The gold that is extracted is more than 99.99% in purity. Now that we gained an expertise in recovering gold, we will also try and recover other elements like palladium and platinum from the e-waste.”


Cotton bleaching process

Researchers from the University of Georgia, the United States, Donghua University, China and Dymatic Chemicals, China, have developed a method that can reduce the amount of energy and wastewater needed for the cotton bleaching process, while improving the quality of the end product. The technique is described in A Novel Low Temperature Approach for Simultaneous Scouring and Bleaching of Knitted Cotton Fabric at 60°C. The article has been published in the journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research.

The team developed a compound that, when used with hydrogen peroxide, drops the bleaching temperature down to 140 degrees Fahrenheit from 200 degrees. The authors estimate that 60-degree difference would result in a process requiring less than half the energy as the commercial technique. It also produced less wastewater, improved the weight of the material by removing less cotton substance during the process and performed its original function – whitening the cotton. While the report contains no figures for the wastewater reduction, it describes the difference as ‘significant’. The removal of less substance from cotton also resulted in a lower chemical oxygen demand in the wastewater, providing additional environmental benefits.

Since many materials destined to become clothing eventually take on various hues, the scientists also tested dyes and found the cotton bleached at the lower temperature could be made just as vibrant as its high-heat counterpart. They successfully showed the treatment’s effectiveness on knitted cotton fabric in commercial scale trials.

Wastewater treatment using UV-light system

There are numerous things in our wastewater that should not find their way into the environment – yet wastewater treatment plants only remove a portion of these contaminants. In particular, bacteria commonly employed in the biological treatment stage have no effect on persistent substances, which include highly stable hydrocarbon compounds. As a result cleaning agent residuals and pesticides as well as pharmacological substances are reaching environmental waters. The loading from these kinds of harmful substances in the North Sea, for instance, is already clearly measurable today.

However, researchers of the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB), Germany, together with international industrial partners have now developed a new chemical reaction system that breaks down these kinds of resilient and harmful molecules thoroughly and efficiently – without having to add chemicals like hydrogen peroxide, for instance. Instead, the researchers are essentially utilizing the ‘self-healing’ power of water aided by photolysis (a.k.a. photochemical dissociation). The principle of photolysis is based on splitting water molecules using photons. The shorter the wavelength of light, the higher the photons’ energy.

Researchers therefore use light sources in this system that emit UV light exclusively in the region of 172 nanometers (nm) – i.e. extremely energetic photons. As soon as these photons enter water, they split the H2O molecules, forming highly reactive hydroxyl radials as a result. “These hydroxyl compounds have an even higher reaction potential than atomic oxygen, for example. They are therefore able to decompose even very stable hydrocarbon compounds contained in harmful residues,” explained Siegfried Egner, head of the Physical Process Technology department at IGB. Contact: Dipl.-Ing.SiegfriedEgner, Head of Department of Physical Process Technology, Nobelstr 12, 70569-Stuttgart, Germany. Tel: +49-711-970-3643; Fax: +49-711-970-4200.

Recycling industrial wastewater

A team of researchers headed by Dr. Martin Prechtl and their colleagues at the Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Germany, have discovered a new method of generating hydrogen using water and formaldehyde. The generation of hydrogen from liquids is of particular interest when it comes to fuel cell technologies. The results of the project, entitled “Selective and mild hydrogen production using water and formaldehyde”, have recently been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Among other applications, the new approach can be used to recycle industrial waste water contaminated by formaldehyde to break down the contaminants whilst simultaneously generating hydrogen. With the aid of this method, it is possible to reclaim an important raw material from industrial waste water. Prechtl and his colleagues have also identified an air-stable and robust catalyst that can be employed with the technique. The researchers have already filed a corresponding patent application.

Formaldehyde is one of the most important raw materials used in chemical engineering; around 30 million tonnes of the substance are produced annually around the world. It is therefore available as a source of hydrogen in large quantities and at low cost. Contact: Dr. Martin Prechtl, University of Cologne, Germany. Tel: +49-221-470-1981; E-mail: martin.

Using CO2 to clean oil and gas wastewater

A team of clean energy researchers at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada, has received a $500,000 grant to commercialize a new technology that converts excess carbon dioxide (CO2) and wastewater from the oil and gas sector into reusable water and valuable chemicals. This development could serve the dual purpose of reducing global carbon dioxide emissions and addressing the issue of decreasing global water reserves. “A lot of technologies look at these issues as two separate problems but we are simultaneously addressing both of them,” said Professor David Wilkinson.

The technique uses an advanced low-energy dialysis system that employs excess carbon dioxide to desalinate industrial wastewater, generating water that can be reused and chemicals such as acids and carbonate salts that have industrial applications. Its carbon footprint is smaller than conventional desalination technology. A major market is the growing oil and gas industry. In Alberta, wide-scale adoption of their method would remove several megatonnes of carbon dioxide and conserve several billion litres of water every year, said Wilkinson.

Wilkinson’s innovation could be used in any jurisdiction where salty water and waste carbon dioxide are present. Contact: Heather Amos, UBC Public Affairs, 310 - 6251 Cecil Green Park Road, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: +1-604-822-3213; E-mail:

An inexpensive technology to treat wastewater

A simple technology can rid wastewater of pollutants and disease-causing germs, generate clean energy and ease global warming. “All it takes is passing the wastewater through a series of filters that take the pollutants and bacteria out,” said Dr. Christopher M. Silverio, Chief of the Environmental Division (EnD) of the Industrial Technology Development Institute of the Department of Science & Technology (ITDI-DOST), Philippines. Called the anaerobic filter bed baffled reactor (AFBBR), the technology was adopted by the Waste and Resources Management, Inc. (WARM) located in Cavite. The reactor was developed by the EnD and was used by WARM to treat expired milk and ice cream produced by local milk & ice cream companies.

The technology is valuable to food processing industries that do not have wastewater treatment facility and is promising especially to prevent pollution of water resources. The reactor is simply a concrete rectangular box. It has 5 compartments divided by a series of baffles (concrete structures that regulate water flow) and filled with cut pieces of inexpensive polyurethane foam. The polyurethane foam, similar to that used as sponge or in mattresses, filters the pollutants and impurities in wastewater. The series of vertical baffles force the wastewater to flow under and over them as it passes through the reactor. Little or no maintenance is required as the basic mechanical design is very simple.

Ordinary outlets similar to faucets, were installed along the side of the reactor to facilitate sampling and analysis of wastewater in order to determine the reactor efficiency in reducing pollutants. The reactor also generates gas, which could be used for cooking and lighting. Test results likewise showed that the technology can be applied to treat wastewater from medium-scale food industries to meet the country’s effluent standards. The low-cost technology is an attractive alternative to other wastewater treatment facilities that are in the market requiring huge investments. The 15m 3 cap. AFBBR costs P150,000 to P200,000 compared to the millions of pesos industries are spending for wastewater treatment. Contact: Rosario “Chato” T. Genato, Industrial Technology Development Institute; Philippines. E-mail:

Wastewater aeration

OxyMem Ltd, Ireland, a University College Dublin (UCD) spin-out company, has been declared winner of the overall ‘Innovation of the Year’ Award at the 2014 Irish Times InterTradeIreland Innovation Awards. At an awards ceremony held in Dublin, OxyMem Ltd, was also declared the winner of the Energy and the Environment category award. OxyMem Ltd, which has developed a breakthrough technology for wastewater aeration, was co-founded in 2013 by Professor Eoin Casey and Dr Eoin Syron as spin-out from UCD’s School of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering.

Until now wastewater aeration has been a very energy intensive process which has relied on ‘forced’ or ‘bubble aeration’ to deliver oxygen to the bacteria that breakdown the wastewater. Pumping and treating wastewater typically accounts for up to 2.5% of all electrical power produced in a developed country and the aeration process comprises, on average, of 60% of this energy. OxyMem’s patented technology does not rely on a bubble to deliver oxygen to the bacteria. Instead it uses a gas permeable membrane to deliver oxygen directly to the micro-organisms resulting in up to 99% oxygen transfer efficiency, as no oxygen is lost to atmosphere.

The company’s ‘bubbleless’ aeration system is typically four times more energy efficient than best in class solutions available today. Wayne Byrne CEO, Oxymem Ltd said, “Looking to the future, we have major plans to revolutionise the wastewater treatment market globally. We have a turnover of €50 million within five years in our sights and receiving the overall ‘Innovation of the Year Award’ strengthens our position as pioneers in the wastewater industry and in the attainment of an energy and carbon neutral wastewater treatment plant.” Contact: Micéal Whelan, University College Dublin, Ireland. Tel: +353-1-716-3712; E-mail:

Novel wastewater treatment technologies

The European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) has announced Dr. Ignacio Sirés Sadornil as the latest winner of the Carl Wagner Medal of Excellence in Electrochemical Engineering for his exceptional research career in electrochemical wastewater treatment. Organic pollutants in wastewater streams can cause major problems for industry, such as pollution from dye residues presents a challenge for the textile industry. If left untreated, the wastewater can cause groundwater pollution and ruin farmland.

Dr. Sirés, a senior researcher and lecturer at the University of Barcelona (UB), Spain, won the award in recognition of his work on the development of effective and economical treatment technologies for wastewater contaminated with dye, pesticide and pharmaceutical residues. Since starting his research career in the early 2000s, Sirés’ work has focussed on the development of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) for water decontamination, in particular organic pollutant degradation. This new technology is based on electro-Fenton reaction chemistry. Fenton chemistry refers to the oxidation of organic compounds by free radicals generated by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with an iron catalyst. The work of Sirés has developed electro-Fenton processes, generating the hydrogen peroxide in situ by electrochemical reduction of oxygen.

Professor Manuel Rodrigo, Chair of the EFCE Working Party on Electrochemical Engineering, which nominates the medallists, said, “Dr. Sirés’ research, on the development of novel electrochemical wastewater treatment technologies, has the potential to be scaled up and applied at full scale in industry. He has addressed the optimisation of technology in terms of cost, reactor design and developed a deeper understanding of advanced nanostructured electrode materials for organic pollutant degradation. This is the thinking that contributed to our decision to award the Carl Wagner Medal to Dr. Sirés.” The Excellence award will be presented to Sirés at the 10th European Symposium on Electrochemical Engineering (ESEE), Italy, on 28 Sep-2 Oct 2014. Contact: Trish Regis, EFCE, Tel: +44-1788-534435; E-mail:


Scientists clean oil-polluted soil with fungi

According to findings from researcher Erica Winquist, in her dissertation for Aalto University, Finland, fungi can be harnessed to clean oil-polluted soil, which cannot be cleaned using traditional composting. Soil that has been polluted by organic pollutants, such as oils can be treated by composting. However it is not effective against many other organic pollutants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins. Soil polluted with other organic pollutants than oil accounts for as much as 45% of excavated contaminated soil. The compounds are found in areas where sawing is carried out and in areas where there is distribution of fuels, waste treatment and various kinds of industry, explained Winquist.

In Finland during 2005 and 2006, almost 3 million tonnes of excavated, contaminated soil was transported into landfill sites and other treatment plants. Most of the soil ends up in landfills because at the moment, landfill sites accept it for the use of construction of field structures for new landfill sites. A more sustainable practice would be to clean the polluted soil, rather than just take it to a landfill. At the moment putting it into a landfill is far too easy and cheap. In addition, there is limited use of other methods. Fungi could be used to expand bioremediation for the destruction of the more enduring organic pollutants too, said Winquist.

The research was carried out in cooperation with the University of Helsinki, Finland, as well as with the Finnish Environment Institute. Funding was provided through the Symbio program run by Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, as well as by the companies working with the program.

A cost-effective way of tackling soil pollution

Developed through the European Union’s (EU) FP7 programme, the ‘SORBENT’ project is a new method for dealing with soil pollution, which promises better environmental protection, reduced remediation costs and other economic benefits such as enhancing tourism prospects. This project will also contribute to EU-environmental policy objectives. Soil pollution is a big problem. Heavy oils such as crude oil and other heavy hydrocarbon mixtures can render land unfit for human and animal habitation for many years. “There are more than 3.5 million contaminated sites around Europe,” said SORBENT project coordinator Danguole Draguniene.

By focusing on this environmental problem, SORBENT has developed a process that could lead to potential savings of EUR 8 million a year. “These savings will make a significant contribution to reducing the economic and social problems caused by heavy hydrocarbon contaminations,” Draguniene said. Importantly, the SORBENT project aimed to develop a soil-remediation technique that can be applied in situ – i.e. without the need to remove the soil and treat it elsewhere. Using funding secured through the EU’s FP7 programme, SORBENT deployed an innovative solution based on pulp and paper-mill waste and a bioremediation process with three integrated stages. The technique was developed to be applicable to various types of oil (including crude and heavy) in different soil profiles.

This project could bring long-term benefits worldwide. Oil pollution is a long-standing global issue, and petroleum-based products are used in numerous industries. As production and consumption continue to increase, so inevitably do inadequate safety practices, resulting in accidents, and further contamination. In addition, vulnerable areas, such as abandoned industrial sites, former military bases and landfills, already exist and must be addressed. The next step will be a full-scale demonstration of SORBENT’s integrated technique to verify the viability of the solution and acquire regulatory acceptance in order to market the resulting project products.

Patent to monitor chlorinated solvent bioremediation

The U.S. Patent and Trade Office has issued a patent #8,647, 824 B2 on February 11, 2014, to Stanford University, the United States, for the use of the vinyl chloride reductase (vcrA) gene to quantify microorganisms critical in chlorinated solvent bioremediation. SiREM, Canada, through an exclusive agreement with Stanford University, is the only licensed provider of vcrA gene testing. Commercial testing for this gene was offered under the trade name Gene-Trac® VC. Using this test, bioremediation practitioners can analyse soil and groundwater for the presence of microorganisms containing the vcrA gene.

Quantifying the vcrA gene can differentiate whether vinyl chloride will accumulate, or be detoxified, in the bioremediation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) found in a groundwater source. Both PCE and TCE are common groundwater contaminants widely used as dry cleaning solvents and degreasing agents. The bioremediation of either contaminant can produce breakdown products, including carcinogenic vinyl chloride, which requires microorganisms that produce vinyl chloride reductase enzymes to complete the site clean-up process.

The vcrA gene also is used to track the growth and effectiveness of SiREM’s vcrA containing KB-1® culture, which has been applied at hundreds of bioremediation sites across North America, Europe, and Asia to enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents. SiREM also maintains a treatability laboratory equipped to conduct studies that evaluate a variety of groundwater and soil treatment technologies. The company holds multiple licenses with leading academic institutions and industry partners that allow it to provide clients unique, science-based products and services to address remediation challenges. Contact: Phil Dennis, 130 Research Lane, Suite 2, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Tel: +1-519-515-0836; E-mail:

Innovative environmental remediation process

Kleinfelder, the United States, a global architecture, engineering and science consulting firm has announced that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has issued U.S. Patent 8,580,114 covering a new remediation process designed to remove contamination from groundwater. This propriety method is applicable to areas where large dissolved plumes of contaminants (e.g., nitrates, perchlorate, metals, and other chemicals) are affecting groundwater.

The newly patented process relies on an underground treatment system consisting of a network of injection and extraction wells with pre-emplaced emulsified vegetable oil or other appropriate reagent. Untreated groundwater is conveyed through the treatment system whereby contaminants undergo bioremediation (or chemical oxidation, depending on reagent selection). The treatment system is smaller in area than the plume and can be located in easy-to-access areas with appropriate soil types, and at convenient depths.

“Groundwater contamination is often widespread, difficult to access through traditional remediation technologies, and expensive,” said Edward (Ted) Tyler, at Kleinfelder. The remediation process was developed to work around many of these constraints while providing an effective means of remediating large dissolved plumes of contamination. This solution helps reduce client remediation costs, protects human health, and preserves the environment. Contact: Kleinfelder, 5015 Shoreham Place, San Diego, CA 92122, USA. Tel: +1-858-320-2000; Fax: +1-858-320-2001.

Pure oxygen bioremediation system

Developed by Enviro-Equipment, Inc., the United States, the OxyGreen bioremediation system is designed to remove petrochemical contamination in ground water and soil that is typically left behind by most remediation systems, which are primarily designed to remove gross contamination. The OxyGreen system includes eight electrolysis cells and the controls to operate the cells. A typical system can operate on standard 110 volt power with a 30 amp circuit. The standard system will typically cover approximately 5000 square feet. However the system is for lease only and does not include well and system installation.

The constant production of pure oxygen is what separates OxyGreen from other bioremediation systems. While other injection programs provide a temporary surge in microbe activity and/or oxidation of contaminants, the level of activity is not sustainable and requires subsequent injections of oxygen release chemicals, nutrients and microbes to completely remove the contaminants. The OxyGreens supplies a constant source of pure oxygen which accelerates the bioremediation process and shortens the time necessary to completely remove the contaminants.

The OxyGreen system has been used in different geologic settings with hydraulic conductivities ranging from 0.01 to 0.000001 cm per second. No Further Actions (NFA) letters have been obtained from State agencies from both ends on the hydraulic conductivity range. Contact: Enviro-Equipment, Inc., 11180 Downs Road, Pineville NC - 28134, USA.

Patent rights for sulfate enhanced bioremediation

Antea®Group, the United States, a global engineering and environmental consulting firm, and Tersus Environmental, the United States, has signed an exclusive license agreement for US Patent No. 7138060. Under the terms of the agreement, Tersus Environmental will make, market, promote and sell products for sulfate-enhanced bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. The patent includes a process for using high concentrations of sulfate to stimulate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), other aromatic hydrocarbons and other contaminants susceptible to sulfate-reducing bacteria. “This license agreement with Antea®Group will enable us to further expand our strong foundation of intellectual property. Our joint resources will give Tersus customers the best biotechnology-based solutions to manage complex, challenging environmental liabilities and reduce costs for site closure,” said Gary Birk at Tersus.

Enhanced aerobic bioremediation technologies such as the iSOC® gas inFusion technology or the use of oxygen releasing compounds such as TersOx&tm; are commonly used to accelerate naturally occurring in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, and fuel oxygenates such as MTBE and TBA, by indigenous microorganisms in the subsurface. However, these indigenous microorganisms do not function well in the high contaminant concentrations of the source area. Antea®Group developed and proved a sulfate-enhanced in situ remediation strategy to address the anaerobic portion of the plume.

The sulfate-enhanced technology, now marketed by Tersus Environmental under the name Nutrisulfate&tm;, stimulates biodegradation by providing a soluble, readily available electron acceptor solution. Nutrisulfate&tm; is a high sulfate metabolic supplement designed to enhance the kinetics and efficiency of microbial systems specifically related to bioremediation. The increase in kinetics and efficiency decreases the remediation time and reduces the amount of substrate/amendment required. Contact: Antea Group, Roderveldlaan 1, 2600 Antwerpen, Belgium. Tel: +32-0-3221-5500; Fax: +32-0-3221-5501.

Bacteria could restore uranium mining aquifers

A scientific research from University of Wyoming (UW), the United States, has shown that stimulating growth of native bacteria could be a more effective way to remediate aquifers tapped by In-Situ Leach (ISL) uranium mining, the technique used in the vast majority of Wyoming’s existing and planned uranium operations. If those findings are confirmed in the field, uranium companies could save significantly in groundwater restoration costs while achieving better results. “The remediation process simply involves feeding the existing bacteria – no new bacteria are introduced. The result is a better restoration for less cost to the mining company – a win-win situation for the environment, the state and the company,” said Kevin Chamberlain, a research professor in UW’s Department of Geology and Geophysics.

ISL uranium mining involves injecting a groundwater solution into underground ore bodies through cased wells. The solution permeates the porous rock, dissolving the uranium from the ore, and is pumped to the surface through other cased wells. The uranium-rich solution then is transferred to a water treatment facility, where the uranium is removed from the solution by adhering to ion exchange resin beads. The groundwater solution exiting the ion exchange system is then sent back to the injection wells for reuse. However, not all of the uranium is removed from the water, and the process also liberates other metals such as selenium and vanadium. Federal and state regulations require mining companies to restore aquifers by fixing the suspended metals. Most companies now do that with expensive, repeated reverse-osmosis water sweeps, using large amounts of water containing metal-fixing chemicals, with mixed long-term results.

Wyoming, which once had a thriving uranium mining industry, remains No. 1 in the nation in uranium reserves and is seeing something of a renaissance in mining operations after decades of industry decline and delay. The Smith Ranch-Highland mine from Cameco, Canada, in the Converse County, the United States, is one of the country’s biggest producers, and several other companies have opened or are preparing to start ISL operations in the state – which stands to benefit through job creation and tax revenues. In 2011, Chamberlain received a $100,000 grant from the UW School of Energy Resources’ (SER), to study restoration of the relatively deep uranium aquifers using bioremediation. “This bioremediation technique has the potential to reduce the cost of aquifer restoration by as much as 90%, and may result in reduced regulatory bonding obligations for companies. These investments made by the state are critical in allowing the industry to move forward, while sustaining Wyoming jobs and the economy,” said Chamberlain.


Patent for CO2 recycling technology

Krebs & Sisler, the United States, has developed a carbon dioxide (CO2) separation and recycling method called Enhanced Photosynthesis and Photocatalysis Water Treatment/Biomass Growth Process. The technology is described in US Patent No. 8,673,615. The suburban Chicago energy research firm said it complements the O2/CO2 combustion and condensing boiler system of its US Patent No. 6,907,845 which separates and recovers CO2 and all other combustion-generated exhaust gases.

In O2/CO2 combustion, oxygen is diluted with CO2 for temperature control of the fuel oxidant used to combust coal, petroleum coke or natural gas. Excluding the nitrogen that is present in air-fired combustion enables cost-free recovery of both the condensate and the CO2 from a condensing boiler. The condensate and CO2 are pumped into deep and slow flowing water channels, saturated in the visible light spectrum of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A photocatalyst mineralizes organic and inorganic compounds for absorption into a cynobacterial biomass like Spirulina. The absorption of minerals in the growing biomass concurrently purifies the flowing water.

Inventor Bill Krebs said, “The firm is now developing a combination coal, rotary kiln, O2/CO2 combustion condensing boiler that will have cost efficiency and emission advantages. Air-fired plants operate at an average 34% fuel efficiency. By comparison, the firm’s O2/CO2 combustion method combined with a condensing boiler can more than double plant fuel efficiency, reducing both the fuel and oxygen requirements by half.”

Cost-effective solution for acid gas control

ADVATECH, the United States, has developed, standardized, and implemented a simplified and integrated wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) process for small boilers and industrial applications that requires less capital investment and a smaller footprint than traditional designs. The technology achieves compliance for Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) while minimizing capital investment. The Simplified Double Content Flow Scrubber (Simplified DCFS) eliminates costly and, in some instances, maintenance-intensive capital equipment. Furthermore, its design is close coupled to minimize ductwork, piping, and electrical runs, as well as overall space requirements. Specific features include:
• Pre-ground Limestone with Dry Limestone Feed;
• Efficient Oxidation and Agitation;
• Expandability;
• Direct Feed to Primary Dewatering; and
• Integrated Stack.

Contact: ADVATECH LLC, PO Box 201080, Austin, Texas, USA-78720-1080. Tel: +1-678-808-8841; E-mail:

Researchers invent promising method for CO2 reduction

Researchers at the Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences (MAMK), Finland, have developed a water-based technique for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial emissions. According to the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, the invention could be a game-changer for reducing one of industry’s most pernicious greenhouse gases. In recent years there hasn’t been much progress in reducing emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. However a team of researchers at the MAMK appears to have made a major breakthrough in recovering the greenhouse gas from industrial emissions, offering some hope for reversing the creep of climate change.

Current techniques for removing CO2 from emissions employ harmful chemicals that may harm the environmental or human health. The Mikkeli test laboratory in Savonlinna has been removing carbon dioxide by percolating it through clean water. “We dissolve the flue gas emissions in water and using low pressure we separate the carbon dioxide from the liquid as a gas,” said researcher Teijo Linnanen. The recovery device developed by Linnanen and his colleagues has already been patented and VTT estimates that the Finnish invention could work as well in the real world as it does under lab conditions. The MAMK is currently chasing financing for a demo facility, where researchers will be able to recover CO2 in a real-world environment.

CO2 capture and separation technology

The Clean Gas Technology Australia (CGTA) at Curtin University, Australia, has developed an innovative technology to enhance carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, with sponsorship from the CO2CRC. This new technology, the synthetic hydrate for CO2 separation holds the promise of greatly reducing CO2 emissions while also reducing the costs and energy required. The CO2 hydrate separation principle is based on the partition of the gas component in the mixture between the gaseous and hydrate phases.

The process showed high selectivity when applied to natural gas using a novel method of hydrate formation/dissociation at elevated temperature and pressure in a continuous process. In general, low-temperature and high-pressure conditions are necessary for the hydrate formation. However the formation temperature, pressure, nucleation time and stability can vary with the gas composition. These factors can greatly affect the process efficiency and the energy required for the hydrate formation and dissociation. This technology can be used to extract CO2 from process streams of pre or post combustion as CO2 hydrates or as high-pressure gas.

Successful implementation of the CO2 separation using hydrate will help many coal fired industries. The initial evaluation of the technology indicates that the process has major advantages over conventional removal processes, CO2 compression, and gas pipelining. In addition, it can be used for more direct applications for managing global CO2, including separation of CO2 from wellhead natural gas, where low quality (high CO2 content) gas is increasingly produced.

Efficient way to separate CO2 from natural gas

Scientists in the Rice University lab of chemist James Tour, the United States, have developed materials that offers a lower cost, less energy-intensive way to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas at wellheads. The nucleophilic porous carbons, synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors, pull only CO2 molecules from flowing natural gas and polymerize them while under pressure naturally provided by the well. When the pressure is released, the CO2 spontaneously depolymerizes and frees the sorbent material to collect more. All of this works in ambient temperatures, unlike current high-temperature capture technologies that use up a portion of the energy being produced.

Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, but still requires clean-up before use – such as the removal of CO2 to meet pipeline specifications. Development of cost-effective means to separate CO2 during the production process will improve its advantage over other fossil fuels and enable the economic production of gas resources with higher CO2 content that would be too costly to recover using current carbon capture technologies, Tour said.

The Tour lab patented material, developed with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the United States, shows promise to replace more costly and energy-intensive processes. Results from the research appear in the journal Nature Communications. Apache Corp., the United States, an oil and gas exploration and production company, has funded the research at Rice and licensed the technology. Tour expected it will take time and more work on manufacturing and engineering aspects to commercialize.

Innovative CO2 scrubbing technology

Union Engineering, Denmark, is in the process of patenting an innovative carbon-dioxide (CO2) scrubbing technology that could produce environmental and financial benefits for the brewing industry. The technology was developed in 2006 and has been tested at full-scale in collaboration with brewers Carlsberg as part of a project supported by the Eco-Innovation Initiative of the European Union Entrepreneurship and Innovation Programme (EIP).

The technology allows CO2 produced during brewing to be captured and prepared for re-use, creating a circular process that minimises waste. This is not new, but until now the process has been water- and energy-intensive. The Union Engineering CO2 recovery plant, known as ECO2Brew, uses no water and operates at reduced levels of energy consumption compared to conventional plants. It also results in purer scrubbed CO2 that exceeds industry standards. The scrubbed CO2 can be returned to the brewing process, or used in the production of other carbonated drinks.

Michael Mortensen of Union Engineering said, “The technology for reusing CO2 in breweries worldwide has changed little in the last fifty years,” and that ECO2Brew offered significant benefits to brewers. Carlsberg evidently agreed. It rated the results of the demonstration project as “extremely positive,” and subsequently awarded Union Engineering a contract to install a plant at a brewery in Finland, where the recovered CO2 is to be used in soft drink production.


Bioremediation: Processes, Challenges and Future Prospects

This book presents state-of-the-art research on bioremediation, which is understood as a discipline that uses organisms or their products to reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of pollutants in the environment. The book compiles the most important work of distinguished scientists around the world who are at the vanguard in this discipline, covering the environments of soil and water, as well as a great variety of microorganisms and mechanism bioremediators.

E-Waste: Management, Types and Challenges

With advancements in the electronic world almost occurring on a day-to-day basis and increased availability of products to the public, it is not surprising to see a staggering increase in the generation of electronic wastes over the past decade. This book explores the management, types and challenges related to e-waste. Topics discussed include the processing of plastic materials from e-waste; challenges and opportunities of e-waste management in developing countries; an e-waste quantification study of the People’s Republic of China; e-waste environmental contamination and public health effects; and recovery of valuable metals from flat panel displays of spent liquid crystal and plasma televisions.

For the above two books, contact: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 400 Oser Ave Suite 1600, Hauppauge NY 11788-3619, USA. Tel: +1-631-231-7269; Fax: +1-631-231-8175; E-mail:

Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition

Waste Management Practices: Municipal, Hazardous, and Industrial, Second Edition addresses the three main categories of wastes (hazardous, municipal, and ‘special’ wastes) covered under federal regulation outlined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), an established framework for managing the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of several forms of waste.

This book covers the historical and regulatory development of waste management and the management of municipal solid wastes.

Contact: CRC Press, Tel: +44-123-540-0524; Fax: +44-123-540-0525; E-mail:


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