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VATIS Update Waste Management . Jan-Feb 2004

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Waste Management Jan-Feb 2004

ISSN: 0971-5665

VATIS Update Waste Management is published 4 times a year to keep the readers up to date of most of the relevant and latest technological developments and events in the field of Waste Management. The Update is tailored to policy-makers, industries and technology transfer intermediaries.

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Contents

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IN THE NEWS

Protocol on POPs comes into force

The protocol on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 23 October 2003 after France ratified the treaty. Originally adopted on 24 June 1998 in Denmark, with 35 countries including the European Community signing the treaty, this is the sixth protocol to take effect under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. France joins Austria, Bulgaria, Canda, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Republic of Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden and Switzerland as party to the protocol.


The POPs protocol focuses on 16 substances eleven pesticides, two industrial chemicals and three by-products/contaminants with the ultimate goal of eliminating any discharges, emissions and losses of these POPs. The initiative prohibits production and use of products such as aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, dieldrin, endrin and others. Additional substances such as DDT, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene are slated to be banned in the future. Signatory nations attended their first meeting during December in Geneva, where representatives of member countries were scheduled to discuss as well as initiate work on a review of some of the provisions of the protocol to see if they need to be updated.


Website: www.cw.groupstone.net

Pilot project on medical wastes kicks off in Bangladesh

A UNDP report states that in Dhaka, Bangladesh, used injection needles and saline syringes are destroyed under a pilot project implemented by the Initiative for Peoples Development (IPD), an NGO. The foremost objectives of this project are to create awareness among the concerned people, act as an eye opener for the policy-making fraternity and identify suitable technology to manage such wastes. Medical wastes are being collected from 11 hospitals/clinics in a hygienic manner and transported to the citys Bhashantek area for safe disposal. Management of medical waste is still at the planning level in the country. Dhaka City Corporation and the Japan International Cooperation Agency recently signed a pact to prepare a solid waste management master plan.


Website: www.thedailystar.net

Treaty on trade to become law

Armenia is the 50th country to ratify the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade, thus commencing the countdown to the treatys enactment on 24 February 2004. Mr. Klaus Tpfer, Executive Director of UNEP, expressed that the new regime offers its member governments, particularly in developing countries, the tools required to safeguard their citizens, clean up obsolete stockpiles of pesticides as well as strengthen their chemicals management.



Jointly supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and UNEP, the convention establishes a first line of defence against future tragedies that could be caused by hazardous chemicals. The convention facilitates importing nations to decide which potentially hazardous chemicals they want to receive and exclude those they are not able to manage safely. Though the convention starts off with 27 chemicals, five more pesticides have already been marked for inclusion and many more are likely to be added in the future.



Website: www.ban.org

Funds for developing nations to protect the environment

The Global Environment Facility has pledged US$250 million for a three-year scheme to help countries in the developing world address problems relating to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Island nations in the Pacific will receive support from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) with regard to removal and disposal of POPs. GHD Pty. Limited, an engineering company, is slated to remove POPs from 13 Pacific island countries including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu under the POPs in PICs project. Thereafter, the POPs will be transported to Australia for safe disposal. Important POPs present in Pacific island countries include those in agricultural pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls present in obsolete electrical equipment.



The World Bank has also been active in environmental protection in the developing world. The Community Development Carbon Fund has been established by the Bank to support small-scale projects for greenhouse gas reduction. The US$35 million fund will assist schemes in areas such as waste-to-energy and renewables, provided they have measurable benefits. Furthermore, private sector investors participating in the funding will gain credits for carbon emission reductions.



Website: www.jxj.com

ADB aid for Pakistan

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has offered Pakistan US$100 million to establish effluent treatment plants and hazardous waste landfill sites. According to a working paper with the Ministry of Environment, ADB would finance industrial efficiency and environmental management programmes to facilitate industries to fulfil national as well as international environmental standards and enable exports to foreign markets within the WTO regime. The proposed credit will be used to set up six combined industrial effluent treatment plants in select high priority industrial estates and industrial clusters, and create two landfill sites for toxic wastes.



Industrial associations in each of the industrial estates will join hands to put in place a private entity for procuring loans to build, own, operate and maintain the effluent treatment plants and landfill sites. Through the Ministry of Finance, the government would re-lend the amount received from ADB to a financial intermediary on the terms established at the time of appraisal. The intermediary would then furnish loans to the private entity, which would collect service fees from individual industries.



Website: www.pakistantimes.net

Electronic waste shipments into Hong Kong restricted

Hong Kongs Environmental Protection Department has issued a circular that makes it illegal under the local waste disposal ordinance to import toxic electronic wastes, such as TVs and computer monitors, into the country without a written permit from local authorities. Beginning 20 October 2003, carriers are to refrain from booking/accepting such cargo particularly those that are declared as Used TVs, Used computers or Used appliances either for discharge in or transhipment over Hong Kong. Other nations following Hong Kong include the Republic of Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.


In the Republic of Korea, though used TVs and computer monitors are not prohibited commodities for importation, from 11 November 2003 discarded TVs, computer monitors, electronic wastes, etc. have been banned. Taiwan allows imports of used TVs and computer monitors but has forbidden waste TVs and computer monitors. All used TVs and monitors are restricted without exception in Thailand.


Website: www.kline.com

Solid waste treatment market in Korea

A steadily expanding solid waste treatment market in the Republic of Korea is opening up new vistas for environmental companies. According to the Ministry of Environment (MOE), this market was worth US$3 billion in 2002, a 15 per cent increase over the previous year. Solid waste treatment accounted for 34 per cent of the overall environmental market, the second largest environmental sub-sector behind water pollution control at 47 per cent followed by air pollution control at 14.5 per cent. MOE predicts that this market will increase at double-digit growth rates annually reaching US$3.4 billion in 2003.



The Korean Waste Management Act has classified solid waste into three categories industrial waste, household waste and construction debris. Aggressive policy initiatives by the government, to reduce solid waste generation, resulted in lower production of household waste nationwide, from 75,000 t/d to 49,000 t/d over the last decade. However, the rapidly increasing economy over the past nine years has led to a 113 per cent raise in daily industrial waste generation, reaching 95,000 t. Additionally, generation of construction debris has risen by 282 per cent over the last five years, reaching 108,000 t/d.


The typical solid waste treatment methods are landfill, sea dumping, incineration and reprocessing. Compared with open dumping type landfills used exclusively until a decade ago, recently developed landfill sites operate using technologies that reduce environmental pollution caused by landfill gas and leachate. Dumping human wastes and waste sludge into the sea is convenient as a low-cost treatment option. The amount of sea dumping has increased from 4,200 t/d to 7,800 t/d over the last four years. To dispose food wastes, many municipalities are turning to recycling methods like composting and refuse derived fuel. Incineration has emerged as the best available solution to deal with non-recyclable solid wastes given the limited landfill space in the country.



In January 2003, MOE promulgated an Extended Producer Responsibility System (EPRS) that imposes waste recycling obligations on producers or importers of high waste-generating products such as home appliances and PCs. Product lists that fall under EPRS requirement are wrappings (paper, glass, steel, synthetic resins) and electric cells, electrical appliances, lubricants and tyres. The items covered under this regulation will soon be expanded to include other recyclables such as fluorescent bulbs, mobile phones, etc. The Korean Resource Recovery and Reutilization Corp. is a state-run organization, which reviews and approves producers recycling plans and sets the target recycling rate for each category of solid waste.


Website: www.buyusa.gov

Chinese guidelines to address e-waste

China plans to formulate policies that will hold producers partly or wholly responsible for treating electronic waste products. According to the Deputy Director General of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), Mr. Pan Yue, SEPA would push for the promulgation of such programmes aimed at realizing harmony between economic growth and environmental protection. Mr. Pan called the new system under consideration an extension of producers responsibilities, a development of the polluters pay for the pollution they cause principle. He said the key to solving environmental pollution caused by electronic scrap lies in spurring production facilities to produce environmentally friendly products. This would cut or eliminate the use of harmful substances at the source.



Website: www.recyclingtoday.com

Curbs in Thailand for recycling facilities

Thailands Ministry for Industry will revise regulations for waste recycling facilities and carriers of hazardous substances to ensure public safety. Requirements for factory types 105 and 106, which reprocess industrial wastes, are being overhauled. These factories would have to improve their environmental management, waste storage and transportation included. Owners who violate the regulations could have their permits suspended or revoked.



The Department of Industrial Works (DIW) has been issuing two kinds of permits for type 105 and 106 recycling factories since 2001. So far, 41 factories have obtained permits to dispose industrial waste though not all services require an environmental impact assessment (EIA). Three sanitary landfills and seven gypsum plants incinerating industrial wastes need EIAs. Other services recycling electronic waste do not need them, states DIW. Among the proposed regulations, one is to fit hazardous substance carriers with a global positioning system (GPS) device and a black box for recording information about their routines. The draft also calls for the container/tank on hazardous substance carriers to be registered with DIW and facilitate regular inspection.



Website: www.bangkokpost.net

Waste treatment sector in Thailand

According to the Federation of Thai Industries (FTI), Thailand, the waste treatment business is burgeoning in response to growing concerns about the demand for improved hazardous waste treatment to fulfil the needs of international trade partners. Out of 120,000 factories operating presently nationwide, only half of them are reported to have adequate waste treatment facilities. The Industrial Works Department had instructed factory owners to specify, by the end of 2003, how they cope with both hazardous and normal trash. FTIs 30-member waste treatment industrial group (WTIG) is encouraging factories to meet the local treatment regulations and international requirements, especially those set by the European Union, which insists upon proper treatment of electrical and electronic waste.



The Pollution Control Department (PCD) reported that local industries generated 1.4 million tonnes of toxic waste in 2002, up from 1.3 million tonnes a year earlier. This volume is projected to reach 1.5 million tonnes in 2003. PCD states that only 10 per cent of toxic wastes is adequately treated since only a small number of factories have invested in proper facilities. WTIG is optimistic about the prospects for improvement, with 12 industrial waste firms receiving approval by the Industrial Works Department (IWD) in 2002 and 10 more seeking approval in 2003. It has requested the Science and Technology Ministry to reserve funds for establishing a waste treatment and research centre for electronic and electrical articles. This centre, anticipated to receive technical support from Germany, will also train manufacturers to deal with e- waste. WTIG is to join the IWD in categorizing the factories on their waste treatment capabilities.



Website: www.bangkokpost.net

Reduced vehicular emission levels in the Philippines

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) of the Philippines has found the Clean Air Acts anti-smoke belching provisions to be unrealistic. By means of the Administrative Order 51, DENR has relaxed emission standards set by the 1999 law for land vehicles. For vehicles with petroleum engines, the allowable emissions of carbon monoxide are now up to 4.5 per cent by volume and hydrocarbon emissions at 800 parts per million (ppm) when the vehicle is idling. Original limits under the 1999 law were a low of 0.5 per cent allowable carbon monoxide emissions and 100 ppm of hydrocarbon emissions. With regard to diesel fuelled vehicles, the original light absorption coefficient standard (that determines the amount of black carbon present) set at 1.2 has been raised to 2.5.



Website: www.inq7.net

Emission controls at coal-fired power plants in China

Coal-fired power plants in Beijing and other main cities of China have been asked to install emission controls for reducing the release of harmful sulphur dioxide. New requirements introduced this week by the State Environmental Protection Administration will also apply to facilities in Shanghai, Chinas business hub and largest city, in addition to 21 other metropolises. Together with Beijing, these cities account for 60 per cent of the nations total sulphur dioxide emissions from coal, vehicle exhaust and industrial pollution. By 2005, 137 key plants must be installed with emissions reduction equipment.



Website: www.enn.com

Indian policy on auto fuel unveiled

India announced the launch of a new national policy on auto fuel to curb air pollution in cities and towns. The guidelines lay down a road map for achieving various vehicle emission norms by 2010 and has set April 2010 as the deadline to ban the sale of automobiles that do not conform to Euro-III emission norms stipulated by the European Union. However, 11 major cities, including New Delhi, have to fulfil the Euro-III benchmark by April 2005. By 2010, these metropolises will have to meet the higher Euro-IV norms. For the production of cleaner fuel, the mostly state-run domestic oil refineries are expected to invest up to US$6.7 billion while automobile makers will spend another US$5.5 billion to manufacture vehicles with better emission norms.


Website: www.enn.com

Environmental defaulters punished

In China, 12,000 companies have been penalized for non-compliance with environmental laws during the first 10 months of 2003. At a seminar on Chinas ecological environment and economy, the Deputy Director of the State Environmental Protection Administration reported that 33.5 per cent of the transgressors were using outdated production facilities banned by the government for inefficiency and pollution. About 13.6 per cent of the firms had violated environmental laws in construction projects.


Website: www.english.peopledaily.com.cn

China becomes dumping ground for electronic garbage

According to Chinas Xinhua news agency, nearly 90 per cent of the total electronic waste exported to Asia from around the world ends up in the country. Chinese authorities have listed Guangdongs towns of Guiyu, Longtang and Dali as Chinas major centres for the collection and distribution of electronic trash. Other areas identified include the Taizhou region of eastern Chinas Zhejiang province, Huanghua city of northern Chinas Hebei province as well as some areas in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces. China is slated to draft new laws for regulating electronic rubbish retrieval and reprocessing activities.


Website: www.ban.org

Loan for solid waste management

In the Philippines, the governments Investment Coordination Committee (ICC) has approved a special lending facility for solid waste management projects proposed by local government units (LGUs). The state-owned Development Bank of the Philippines will open this facility. A report by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), ICCs lead agency, states that the Integrated Solid Waste Management Project is aimed at providing an improved and comprehensive solid waste management system in the country. This programme will provide financing to eligible borrowers who will employ modern management techniques, equipment and facilities to achieve cost effectivity as well as technical efficiency while augmenting the responsiveness of service providers and operators. It added that the project is expected to improve health and sanitation conditions, alleviate flood problems, especially in urbanized or densely populated areas, and promote the tourism industry and environment protection. The project also involves providing sub-loans to address the investment requirements of LGUs in the development and im- plementation of sustainable solid waste management programmes.


Website: www.money.inq7.net

Taiwan to recycle discarded CDs

Taiwan, the largest manufacturer of compact discs (CDs) in the world, will start to reprocess this product by early July 2004, when required legislations have been established. CDs comprise plastic materials as well as metals, including aluminium, gold, silver and titanium. About 5.5 billion CDs are produced annually in Taiwan, including 4.7 billion CDs for the overseas market. Taiwans Environmental Protection Administration had entrusted the Industrial Technology Research Institute with conducting a feasibility study on CD recycling. According to a preliminary study by the institute, which estimates that CDs have a 4-year lifespan and a 2 per cent damage rate during the recording process, about 60 million CDs weighing 990 t are discarded every year in the country. This conservative appraisal does not take into account discs with defects thrown away by the manufacturing sector. Currently, only one environmental service company systematically recycles CDs. At present, it produces 400 t/month of plastic from discarded and recycled CDs.


Website: www.taipeitimes.com

PLASTIC WASTES

Technology for dechlorinating plastics

The Japan Steel Works Ltd., Japan, offers a waste plastic dechlorination solid fuel facility. In this process, waste plastic collected as classified refuse is reduced into fragments. Impurities are removed during the pre-treatment stage, which also includes washing and dewatering of feedstock for residue disposal. In the next phase, plasticizing stage, plastic is melted by raising its bulk density and temperature in order to remove moisture before the molten material enters the dechlorination stage. Dechlorination refers to decomposition of molten plastic under elevated temperature by adding the mixing and compounding force of extruder twin-screws to separate and direct hydrogen chloride gas produced from the plastic through vent boxes on the extruder. The gas is treated with dechlorinating equipment and dechlorinated plastic is forced through die nozzles, cut and water-cooled into solid products. These products can be used as a substitute for coal in boilers, power stations, blast and coke furnaces, as well as in cement manufacture.


Salient features of the new process include:
  • Stable processing rate regardless of waste plastic properties;
  • Fast, energy-saving heating and melting by means of extruder screw shear force;
  • Uniform, efficient decomposition of the melt by heat accompanied by distributive and dispersed compounding;
  • Prevention of coking by extruder screw self-cleaning function;
  • Highly efficient degassing by intense surface renewal of decomposed plastic;
  • Flexible operation to cope with different material compositions and moisture contents;
  • Safe operation with self-sealing device; and
  • High productivity by continuous operation.
Contact: The Japan Steel Works Ltd., 1-2-1, Yuraku-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 0006, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3501 6135; Fax: +81 (3) 3695 4620.


Website: www.jsw.co.jp


Source Website: www.nett21.gec.jp

Process to conserve hydrocarbons

Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed an advanced tertiary plastics recycling method that produces a product in the petroleum and diesel fuel boiling range for use in refining and petrochemical plants. The United States generates more than 180 million tonnes of municipal solid waste annually. Out of this, plastics account for about 8.3 per cent or 15 million tonnes. Plastics are a component of municipal waste that can be recycled to minimize the volumes for disposal and to make value-added products. A number of municipalities have implemented rigourous waste minimization and recycling programmes.


Conventional approaches to recycle waste plastics rely on secondary and tertiary recycling procedures. Secondary recycling returns waste plastics back to the plastics industry for use in the manufacture of new products. Tertiary recycling exploits waste plastics as a carbon-containing resource, applying thermal processing to obtain a distillate of low molecular weight.


The WRI advanced tertiary plastics recycling technology converts the polymeric structure of the plastic into smaller monomeric molecules and related chemical structures by co-processing the plastics with a low-value oil, like used motor oil or refinery streams. Thermal decomposition of the polymeric structure is further enhanced by adding a free-radical initiator, which lowers coke and gas production and increases plastics conversion and distillate yield. Contact: Western Research Institute, # 365, North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072-3380, United States of America.


Website: www.westernresearch.org

Recycling for plastic car parts

Researchers at Leeds University in the United Kingdom have developed a pyrolysis process to recycle composite plastics used in car manufacture. Composites contain many components such as glass fibre reinforcement, thermoplastic polymer, etc. The mixture of plastic polymer components commonly used makes composites very difficult to recycle. During pyrolysis, polymers break down yielding an oil/wax, a gas and char product. The advantage is that potentially all the process by-products can be used. The oil/wax is suitable for use as a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock to produce new plastics.



Researchers concentrated on glass fibre reinforced styrene-polyester copolymer composite as a typical high usage material. Glass fibre forms the major constituent of composite plastic wastes and has significant value. Fibre recovery systems must use process conditions that do not degrade the fibre strength. The key parameter being temperature. Above 800C, the fibres become brittle and lose their strength quickly. Pyrolysis employs low temperatures, under 500C, retaining the strength and flexibility of the fibre. This process enabled 40 per cent conversion of composite plastic wastes into oil that had fuel properties similar to those of petroleum-derived gas oil. The plastic was thermally degraded to obtain wax, which was composed of more than 95 weight per cent of phthalic anhydride utilized in the production of composite materials. Researchers opine that application of pyrolysis method for difficult waste streams appear to show promising potential. Test results demonstrate that up to 25 weight per cent of recycled fibre could be successfully incorporated into new composite, while still meeting manufacturers specifications.


Website: www.envirolinknorthwest.co.uk

Low-heat plastics facilitate recycling

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the United States, have developed a technique to mould plastics into shape without heating them. This method allows the plastics to be reprocessed without visibly damaging the molecular chains they consist of. The team added powdered polystyrene, a hard plastic, to powdered soft plastic, like polybutyl acrylate. When pressure was applied to this mixture, the hard component dissolved into the soft component, making the plastic compound malleable and remouldable. The team shredded and remoulded the plastic up to 10 times and saw no change in their properties.


According to Dr. Anne Mayes who led the research, their procedure is similar to those used to manufacture plastics. However, the key difference was the use of hard and soft components in the plastic. This avoids the need for heating plastics to high temperatures, thereby lowering the quantity of energy used to heat and then cool the moulds at manufacturing plants. The new technique may also require lower amounts of additives such as flame-retardants and ultraviolet stabilizers to be applied to plastics.


Website: www.newsvote.bbc.co.uk

PET recycling

Hosokawa Micron Corp., Japan, is offering a solid-state polymerization (SSP) system to recycle PET. This cost-effective and economical process adds value to post-consumer PET by raising the degree of polymerization (expressed in terms of I.V.) to reinforce the properties of PET. Through the SSP procedure, recycled PET flakes become fit to once again be converted into PET bottles, and also for the production of industrial materials and construction materials that require a higher I.V. than PET bottle-grade I.V. PET thus recycled can also be used in applications that require I.V. values ranging from 0.75-0.85 (bottles) to 0.85-1.20 (tape, panels and sheets).


Contact: Hosokawa Micron Corporation, 5-14, Kawaramachi 2-Chome, Chuo-ku, Osaka 541 0048, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 6233 3963; Fax: +81 (6) 6229 9313;


Website: www.hosokawamicron.co.jp


Source Website: www.nett21.gec.jp

New plastic sorting system

In Japan, Hitachi Ltd. is offering a plastics sorting system designed to segregate and collect the target variety from a blend of plastics produced during manufacturing or after use. This system takes advantage of the difference in specific gravity of different materials. Moreover, the system can be optimized according to the nature and use of the target object.


The new system is based on the principle that when mixed plastics are fed into a liquid cyclone along with water, the relationship between the centrifugal force and resistance acting on the plastics causes plastic components having specific gravity higher than a predetermined threshold to get discharged downwards owing to a downward-swirling flow generated near the wall of the outer cylinder. Plastic components having smaller specific gravity then get discharged in upward direction by an upward-swirling flow near the inner cylinder. Designed to sort a two-component substance, the liquid cyclone can be turned into a multi-stage system to enable sorting of a multiple component substance. This system can be employed to separate PVCs from mixed plastics and high-precision sorting of plastics generated in production or post-use.


The company is also developing a high-precision sorting technique for PVCs based on the liquid cyclone type plastics sorting procedure for general waste.


Contact: Hitachi Ltd., 4-6, Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 8010, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3258 1111; Fax: +81 (3) 3258 9747.


Website: www.hitachi.co.jp


Source Website: www.nett21.gec.jp

Breakthrough in HDPE recycling

A student at Northumbria University, the United Kingdom, has developed a technique to mould and laminate waste high-density polyethylene, or HDPE, to create curves. Mr. Richard Liddles plastic furniture process can take 100 per cent waste HDPE and machine and extrude them, thus enabling it to take on flexible forms. This flexibility allows the material to be set in moulds to produce a series of rigid curved forms. These forms can be replicated continuously and fixed alongside one another to create furnitures.


Contact: E-mail: info@cohdadesign.com


Website: www.ferret.com.au

BIOMEDICAL/HEALTHCARE WASTES

Patented technology to sterilize wastes

Ecolotec LLC is offering a patented system to convert medical wastes into ordinary municipal solid waste. The system basically comprises a jacketed pressure/vacuum vessel into which infectious waste is loaded. The vessel is fitted with internal knife hammers that rotate at up to 3,500 revolutions/min to disintegrate and shred the waste, while live steam is injected to raise the temperature to around 132C. Every waste particle is brought into immediate contact with the steam atmosphere, eliminating cold spots while shortening the time needed for reliable sterilization. Once sterilization parameters are fulfilled, the waste is vented through a condenser and filter.
The average process requires about 15 min/cycle with the ability to process about 136 kg/h.


Contact: Eco Concepts, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Tel: +1 (519) 8260 803; Fax: +1 (519) 8267 648.


E-mail: office@eco-concepts.com


Website: www.ecolotec.com

Waste treatment using solar power

Researchers at Choithram Hospital, India, have developed solar heating systems as a low-cost disinfection option for treating infectious waste. Solar box cookers focus sunrays to produce temperatures up to 150C, sufficient to eliminate a majority of harmful bacteria. These apparatus require just 20 min/h of sunshine to operate effectively.


Incinerators and autoclaves are expensive to build and buy, and some waste ends up being dumped without decontamination. Solar ovens are extremely simple, comprising two foil-covered boxes, one fitting inside the other. A sheet of transparent glass serves as a lid and an angled mirror reflects extra sunlight into the box. It works on the same principles as a greenhouse, swiftly reaching high temperatures. Field tests have shown that these devices can reduce the levels of Staphylococcus and E. coli bacteria to just a fraction of their initial population. Other field trials using highly drug-resistant strains immersed in water were even more successful.


Website: www.newsvote.bbc.co.uk

Sterilization system

Hospital Sterilization Services Inc., Canada, is offering a new system to ensure sterilization of red bag waste to 6 Log 10 spore reduction, thus ensuring total removal of organisms including the heat-resistant Bacillus stearothermophilus, and the HIV and HBV viruses. Hydroclave works on indirect steam sterilization. Steam is stored in a double wall or jacket. Powerful rotators inside the treatment chamber fragment the waste and ensure even heat penetration. The jacketed steam transmits heat to the contained waste, which produces steam of its own. Waste is sterilized for 30 minutes at 121C and minimum 15 psi, and organic components are hydrolysed. Sterile water effluent can be easily disposed through the sanitary sewer. HEPA filters, vacuum pumps, special carts/ bins or costly plastic bags are not required.


At the heart of the sterilization unit is a computerized tracking module, which has been designed to keep track of each waste container from the collection point through to final destruction. This system monitors weight, manifests, collection routes, inventory, technical processing data and produces customer documentation, including invoices.


Contact: Hospital Sterilization Services Inc., 1425, Kebet Way, Port Coquitlam, British Columbia V3C 6L3, Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 4681 561


E-mail: info@hssmedicalwaste.com


Website: www.hssmedicalwaste.com

New incinerator

MIRAI Environment Co. Ltd. in the Republic of Korea has launched an incinerator that employs pyrolysis technique for sterilizing infectious wastes at temperatures exceeding 1,000C. Waste is combusted twice to make it harmless and the need for an operator is kept to a minimum. The completely enclosed system has a small footprint and could be used to treat infectious wastes such as culture dishes, needles, blades, disposable syringes, waste mixed or contacted to organ, etc.


Contact: Mr. Bae Young Jun, MIRAI Environment Co. Limited, 316-1, Shinbu-Li Sunnam-Myun Sungju-Gun Kyungsangbuk-Do 719 834, the Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (54) 9336 290; Fax: +82 (54) 9336 295.


Website: www.mirai-env.co.kr

ELECTRONIC WASTES

E-waste yields metals

In the United States, a subsidiary of Canada-based Noranda Inc. is recovering precious metals (gold, silver, copper and platinum) from obsolete computers, hand-held gadgets and printers. Noranda Recycling is the worlds largest processor of waste electronics, mining precious as well as base metals, steel and plastics from old and discarded electronics.
The reclamation process starts as employees comb through truckloads of equipment for any that might still work and can be resold. Hazardous components such as batteries, ink, etc. are removed. Mechanical processes then take over as workers feed the material into shredding and separation machines that break the equipment into tiny pieces. Steel is recovered in large quantities and supplied to local mills while plastic is recycled, which makes up about one-third of material weight. The remaining bits of copper and precious metals are transported to Norandas smelting and refining operations in Canada.


Website: www.planetark.org

Electronic scrap recycling system

Hamos GmbH, Germany, offers an ERP electronic scrap recycling unit designed to recycle production and post-consumer electronics waste bare and populated circuit boards, integrated circuits, cellular phones and even complex electronic components such as computers, photocopiers, VCRs, etc. The operating principle of this system involves the following stages:
  • Pre-comminution;
  • Magnetic and eddy current separation of the coarse ferrous and non-ferrous metals;
  • Recovery of non-ferrous metals;
  • Classifying for improved separation;
  • Electrostatic separation of the metal fraction;
  • Subsequent comminution of remaining materials;
  • Dust extraction; and
  • Optional gravity or eddy-current separation of coarse metal fractions.
Contact: Hamos GmbH, Im Thal 17, D 82377 Penzberg, Germany. Tel/Fax: +49 (08856) 9261-0/9261-99.


E-mail: hamos@hamos.com


Website: www.hamos.com

New method raises recycling efficiency

Researchers at Purdue University, the United States, have developed a process to increase the efficiency, profitability and capacity of recycling operations for electronic products such as computers and televisions. Devised by Ms. Julie Ann Stuart, this method is based on better management of incoming products from storage to disassembly. Scheduling is a field in which researchers develop methods to improve efficiency by carefully timing the sequence of tasks in an operation.


In the new procedure, the largest products that can be disassembled quickly are the first to be moved out of the staging space. Researchers compared the size-based method with two other strategies one in which the most valuable products are moved first and another where products that can be most quickly disassembled are moved first. It was concluded that only the size-based method offered significantly improved result.


Contact: Ms. Julie Ann Stuart, Purdue University, United States of America. Tel: +1 (765) 4946 256.


E-mail: stuart@purdue.edu


Website: www.globaltechnoscan.com

New electronic scrap recycling line

Proventia Automation Oy, Finland, offers an electronic scrap recycling process (ESRP) line designed for recycling all sorts of pre-processed electrical and electronics scrap. It comprises crushers, separators and dust removal units. Waste is first crushed to an optimal granular size before a sorting process separates metals from the plastic and ceramic. The raw material thus obtained is extremely pure and can be used for further processing in different processing plants. Typically, magnetic metals are sent to the steel industry, aluminium and copper to smelting plants, and plastics and ceramics to the processing industries and as energy supply.


Contact: Proventia Automation Oy, Temmeksentie 3, P.O. Box 208, Oulu 90401, Finland. Tel: + 358 (8) 375 800; Fax: +358 (8) 379 170.


Website: www.proventia.fi

Metal recovery from scrap electronics

Researchers at Imperial College, the United Kingdom, have developed a process for recovering metals from electronic scrap. The new aqueous leaching and electromining method can be used to recover Au, Pd, Ag, Cu, Sn, Pb, etc. Chlorine generated in an electrochemical reactor at Ti/RuO2 anode using acidic aqueous chloride electrolyte is employed in a leach reactor to drive the oxidative dissolution of metals from electronic scrap shredded into less than 4 mm particles. Metals are recovered from solution by electrodeposition at a graphite felt cathode as the counter reaction for the anodic generation of chlorine.


Contact: Mr. G. H. Kelsall, T.H.Huxley School, Imperial College, London SW7 2BP, United Kingdom.


E-mail: g.kelsall@ic.ac.uk


Website: www.arafe.army.mil

SOLVENTS

Solvent distillers

Formeco Srl, Italy, offers a range of solvent distillers. The DIstatic series (7-180 l) and DYstatic series (30-120 l) allow recycling and reuse of degreasing and washing solvents. Through a simple distillation stage, the original solvent is separated from contaminants such as resins, oils, polymers, pigments, paints, etc. In both series, boiling of the solvent is accomplished by a peripheral heating jacket filled with diathermic oil, heated using an electrical element. The vapours are then conveyed to a condenser cooled by air or water. The condensed solvent is collected in a tank for reuse. The systems in both series can be connected to a vacuum unit, suitable for high boiling solvents or inflammable ones, which have a close boiling point and flash point. The vacuum module can be easily equipped with an air-operated vacuum pump or electrical vacuum as required.



The industrial models (150-1,000 l/batch) are equipped with a rotating scraper (optional) having adjustable metallic blades that keep the content to be treated constantly in movement, allowing maximum extraction of the solvent, concentration of the residues and avoiding the residues from sticking to the boilers walls and bottom. The Lathed boiler, built with 8 mm AISI 304 stainless steel, ensures a particular resistance and duration. A microprocessor control facilitates proper use of the plant for treating different kinds of products. The process, which can be divided up to six sections, allows to gear the values of disbursements contextually to the evolving chemical and physical phenomenon induced, and particularly in reference to latent heat of vapouriza-tion, specific heat, vapour tension and the range of the temperatures of distillation.



Models to treat distillation residues from automatic degreasing units are also available. Formeco has transferred the sophisticated azeotropic vacuum distillation technology employed in large petrochemical plants on to small-size units. The process comprises soft vacuum distillation for about 70-80 per cent of polluted solvent. Later on, the concentrated residues present inside the boiler is treated by steam, which strips the residue part of solvent still present, at a working temperature more than 20 per cent under the critical one which causes acidification.


Contact: Formeco Srl, via Cellini 33, 35027 Noventa Padovana (PD), Italy. Tel: +39 (049) 8084 811; Fax: +39 (049) 8084 888.


Website: www.formeco.com

New apparatus for solvent recycling

Vacuumplant Industries Co. Limited, the Republic of Korea, offers a device to distil and recycle contaminated/dirty solvents utilized in machinery, electricity and semiconductor production, etc. This system purifies the solvent by separating diverse solid contaminants. Key components of the recycling unit include reducing pressure distiller, heat exchanger for cooling or condensation, vacuum circulation device, discharge tank, gauge/controller and heat supply system.


Three versions of the solvent reprocessing device are available, VPSR-30, -100 and -200. These models have a power rating of 60 Hz. 4 kW, 10 kW and 20 kW capacity heaters are employed with VPSR-30, -100 and -200 systems, respectively. The VPSR-30 system can handle 30 l/h of dirty solvent while VPSR-100 has the ability to treat 100 l/h and VPSR-200 can easily treat 200 l/h.


Contact: Vacuumplant Industries Co. Ltd., 170-1, Kum-Jung Dong, Kun-Po City, Kyoung-Ki Do, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82 (31) 4538 917; Fax: +82 (31) 4512 740.


E-mail: vacuumplant@vacuumplant.co.kr



Website: www.vacuumplant.co.kr

Solvent gas adsorber

Miura Chemical Equipment Co. Ltd., Japan, offers an activated charcoal fibre solvent gas adsorber. A notable feature of the new process is that cycling times of adsorption and desorption are nearly 10 minutes for each. Activated charcoal fibres have a diameter of 15-20 m, which is smaller than that utilized in a fixed bed. As a result, the solvent gas is adsorbed and desorbed at a higher rate with shorter break band, saving the quantity of activated charcoal.


In this system, solvent laden gas enters an activated charcoal tower. Solvent is adsorbed while it passes the cylindrically rolled activated charcoal fibre elements from its outer to inner circumference and the processed gas is discharged at the top as purified gas. Another activated charcoal tower blows water vapour through the inner circumference of the activated charcoal fibre element to desorb the adsorbed solvent, and a mixture of the solvent vapour and water vapour is introduced into the capacitor through the outer circumference of the element and regained as high purity solvent, after separation from clarified and cooled water.

Contact: Website: www.miura-eco.co.jp


Source Website: www.nett21.gec.jp

New distillation units for waste solvents

Progressive Recovery Inc. (PRI), the United States, offers SC series non-scraped distillation units designed for a wide range of applications to recover waste solvents with typically less than 10 per cent solids content. With loading capacities varying from 68 to 2,160 litres, SC series models can operate in either batch or continuous mode. They have the ability to interface with remote storage tanks and process equipment.


The SCR series is designed for high solids content and includes PRIs proprietary rotating scraper blade assembly to assure optimum efficiency and consistent clean solvent production throughout the reclamation process. All units incorporate a combination of intrinsically safe sensors and explosion-proof electrical components. They are available with either electrically heated oil jacket or ASME steam-heated jacket. A PLC monitors the units operation while an exclusive PPC package allows consistent solvent recovery from solvents with solids up to 25 per cent.


The heavy-duty work horse of the PRI line is the LSR series. An ASME code, stainless steel vessel houses a patented rotating scraper unit that continually scrapes the sidewalls to assure max. heat transfer efficiency and optimum output rate. Systems are available with a wide range of options to suit specific needs. The available options are vacuum assist systems, pumps, solvent storage tanks, automated control systems and Nitrocellulose safety packages. LSR units achieve peak efficiency with a PLC and is built to process a continuous feed of high particle laden solvent with solids content up to 35 per cent.


The Plate-Vac system has been designed specifically for solvent recovery applications in flexographic plate processing. A patented procedure ensures 97 per cent recovery of available solvent even while the still bottoms remain in a flowable state for easy removal and disposal. This unit, plumbed directly to a plate processor, ensures a source of clean solvent that automatically transfers to the plate processor as required. Plate-Vac is available in a variety of models.


Pro-Vac system allows the operator generating hazardous wastes to recover and reuse the cleaning solvent and also remove sufficient solvent from cutting oils so that it can often be reused in the machining operation. The sophisticated and efficient distillation procedure can virtually eliminate the need to manifest the generated waste solvents.


Contact: Progressive Recovery Incorporated, 700, Industrial Dr., Dupo, IL 62239, United States of America. Tel: +1 (800) 7323 793; Fax: +1 (618) 2865 009.


E-mail: sales@progressive-recovery.com


Website: www.progressive-recovery.com

Acetone recycler

Solvent Recovery Systems of the United States is offering closed and sealed distillation-based solvent recovery system that facilitates 50 per cent savings in solvent replacement and up to 75 per cent savings related to waste disposal. Distillation begins when the solvent is heated to its boiling point (acetone 57C). On reaching the prescribed temperature, the polluted solvent starts to evaporate. Vapours thus obtained are collected in a special heat exchange unit and condensed into clean, 99 per cent pure solvent ready for reuse. After about 75 per cent of the available solvent has been recovered, the unit automatically shuts down. The contaminants, normally 25 per cent, are left over in a high-temperature Nylon bag for disposal.


Contact: Solvent Recovery Systems, P.O. Box 184, Orange Park, Florida 32067 0184, United States of America. Tel: +1 (904) 2643 651; Fax: +1 (904) 2649 440.


Website: www.acetone-recycling.com

Solvent recovery and distillation systems

Fischer Process Technology GmbH, Germany, offers a versatile distillation apparatus with high separation efficiency. Pilodist 104 is suitable for solving difficult separation problems and production of pure substances, fatty acids, aromatic compounds of high molecular weight, etc. Gentle distillation is ensured by temperature controlled oil bath along with product circulation. Incorporated with DCD 4001, a processor-based distillation control unit, the systems operating temperature is in the range of 20 to 250C and the charge quantity is 100 to 4,000 ml.


Pilodist 107 is a solvent recovery unit for extremely pure solvents. It is equipped with a concentric-tube-column, ensuring highest separation efficiency and high load ranges. The system is fabricated entirely of glass and guarantees trouble-free operation. Some of the application areas are recovery of xylenes, alcohols, hexane, isooctane, methyl chloride, acetonitriles and many other HPLC solvents.


Contact: Fischer Process Technology GmbH, Auf der Kaiserfuhr 43, Bonn D 53127, Germany. Tel: +49 (228) 9289 4380; Fax: +49 (228) 9289 4382.


E-mail: info@fischer-process.de


Website: www.fischer-process.de

Recovery systems

Prisco, based in the United States, offers Prisco Tech Solvklene PTR series solvent recovery systems in three models PTR-3, PTR-6 and PTR-9. These units are completely self-contained and available with or without built-in vacuum assistance. They are heated by electric heaters immersed in thermal oil within the outer jacket of the stainless steel solvent chamber. These units can be operated in either continuous mode or batch mode. The solvent chamber has been designed to accommodate a flexible Teflon or Nylon liner to facilitate easy removal of solid residue. All solvent chambers and lids are sealed using Teflon encapsulated O ring gaskets. A clean-out port enables removal of liquid residue.


Distillation and condensation of the dirty solvents are controlled automatically by a lid-mounted digital microprocessor with LED display for operating conditions, set-points and self-diagnosing trouble indicators. Electric heaters immersed in heat transfer oil raise the temperature of the dirty solvent to its boiling point. Solvent vapour is circulated around a demisting plate and condensed in a heat exchanger located in the lid. For solvents that boil above 160C, a liquid ring vacuum pump maintains a negative pressure (to 26" Hg) to reduce the boiling point of the solvent by about 37C. The cleaned solvent is collected in a receiving tank, that overflows by gravity through an outlet and into a storage drum or tank.


At the end of each distillation cycle, a quench coil automatically cools the heat transfer oil. When the temperature inside the solvent chamber is below 54C, a lid interlock allows the lid to be opened. Baked-out still bottoms are removed by a patented system that contains the residue in a flat plastic (Nylon or Teflon) liner. A constant liquid level is maintained in the solvent chamber by an auto-fill float and inlet ball valve controlled by a microprocessor with fail-safe circuitry. The contaminated solvent is led into the chamber by vacuum. A lid-mounting sight glass allows visual scrutiny of the boiling solvent. A clean-out port and drain valve is provided for the removal of liquid still bottoms.


Contact: Prisco, 26, Blanchard Street, Newark, NJ 07105, United States of America. Tel: +1 (973) 5897 800; Fax: +1 (973) 5893 225.


E-mail: inquiries@prisco.com


Website: www.prisco.com

Solvent recyclers

BR Corp., the United States, offers 9600 solvent recycler in two models, a spinning band distillation column and packed distillation column. The systems utilize high-efficiency fractional distillation columns to provide high-purity recycled solvents. Virtually all solvents can be reprocessed using the spinning band distillation column. Another advantage of this system is the low hold up, i.e. the amount of material left behind in the distillation column after the distillation is completed. The more widely known packed column distillation is not as efficient as the spinning band but is adequate for many types of solvent recycling.


The 9700 ProCycler Plus solvent recycler relies on its high efficiency distillation columns for removing the contaminants from xylene, alcohol and xylene substitutes. This system is available in 8 l and 17 l capacities. The models incorporate a fully automated solvent recycling process to yield high purity recycled solvents. The compact unit boasts of an all-metal construction. The 8 litre 9700 Pro-Cycler solvent recycler (17 l is also available), offers features similar to that of ProCycler Plus.


PureForm 2100 formalin recycler is designed to automatically recycle formalin back to its original purity (typically 10 per cent). Contaminating tissue, protein, fat, salts and surplus water are removed while recycled formalin is clear and renewed to its original 10 per cent concentration. Available in 8 l and 38 l models, these compact units incorporate a fully automated recycling process and feature an all metal construction.


Contact: BR Corp., United States of America. Tel: +1 (410) 8208 800; Fax: +1 (410) 8208 141.


E-mail: brsales@brinstrument.com


Website: www.solvent-recycling.com

BATTERY WASTES

New battery sorter raises efficiency

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. of Japan is offering a system for sorting batteries according to their types, thereby facilitating efficient recycling of batteries containing precious resources. It incorporates a feeding conveyor, storage hopper, aligning machine, transfer conveyor, electromagnetic sensor and a discharge mechanism (air jet). Batteries are aligned and supplied into the electromagnetic sensor one after the other at high speeds by a rotary sorter. The sensor identifies the batterys internal structure in a non-destructive and non-contact method. Batteries thus isolated are discharged by an air jet. A sorting efficiency of more than 95 per cent can be achieved.


Contact: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., 2-5-1, Marunouchi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 8315, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3212 3111; Fax: +81 (3) 3212 9800.


Website: www.sp.dianet.or.jp

Battery recycling plant

Batrec Industrie AG, Switzerland, is offering technology for recycling batteries. The process starts with the batteries being sorted only as far as removing the nickel-cadmium and lead rechargeable batteries, before being fed into the shaft furnace. The next stage involves pyrolysis, where the temperature is raised to 750C. At this point, mercury and water evaporate and organic matter, such as paper, plastic and carbon, gets combusted. Exhaust gas from this process is reburned in the afterburner chamber and quenched to destroy dioxins. Through rapid cooling of gases, the build-up of dioxins is eliminated. In the following step, exhaust gas is washed in several stages while mercury is condensed out and trapped in a wet solid, or sludge, which contains up to 40 per cent mercury. The sludge is later distilled in a mercury-distilling oven where mercury is evaporated, condensed and recovered in its metallic form. Any remaining substances are returned to the initial pyrolysis stage.


After pyrolysis, batteries are fed into the reduction oven where the metal oxides are reduced at temperatures of up to 1,500C. Iron, manganese and nickel still remain molten, while zinc, cadmium and lead evaporate and are condensed in the zinc condenser. Zinc fraction is then poured off into ingots. Carbon monoxide gas is produced as a by-product. Iron and manganese remain in the melting oven and become ferromanganese, which flows off while non-reduced oxides remain as sludge. Wastewater discharges from the exhaust cleaning and dross washing operations are first filtered of solids before being sent to the recycling plant.


Contact: Batrec Industrie AG, Postfach 20, CH 3752 Wimmis, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (033) 6572 555; Fax: +41 (033) 6572 876.


Website: www.batrec.ch

Low-cost battery recycling

CT Umwelttechnik AG, Switzerland, has developed and patented a process with the aim of using existing metals industries for metal recovery, and stripping the toxic mercury efficiently from batteries in the first step. Demercurization of batteries by oxidative treatment (Debatox) process leads to affordable costs for battery reprocessing. Analogies between the zinc ore composition, zinc waste composition, zinc recycling and battery composition influenced the architecture of the Debatox technique decisively.


Demercurization is only one step in a complete process. On the one hand, mercury is recovered in metal form and the product of the demercurization step is then prepared for further treatment in the zinc recovery process. Several procedures have been developed to obtain zinc. No residues that have to be landfilled or otherwise disposed off are produced.


Contact: CT Umwelttechnik AG, P.O. Box 414, Winterthur CH 8401, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (52) 2626 891; Fax: +41 (52) 2620 072; E-mail: sales @ctu.ch.


Website: www.bb-power.ch

Recovering lead and lead alloys from waste batteries

Engitec Technologies, Italy, offers a state-of-the-art process to recycle lead. The integrated CX system is an innovative and proven technology for producing lead alloys and raw lead from SLI and industrial batteries full of acid. It complies with the most advanced regulations for environmental and labour protection. No liquid effluents are released from the plant as the acid waste is converted into a high-quality saleable product. A dust capturing system reduces lead level contamination well below 0.05 mg/m3 in the working place. Flue dust captured from bag houses are fed back periodically to the CX system for metal recovery.


The CX system provides for the most efficient smelting system because of an integrated process and also since the furnaces are fed with the unique desulphurized paste giving an impressive reduction of production cost. A proprietary design ensures substantial energy savings, reduction of slag and low requirement of iron (10 times lower than the traditional process).


Contact: Engitec Technologies, Via Borsellino e Falcone 31, 20026 Novate Milan, Italy. Tel/Fax: +39 (02) 382 071/3562 086.


E-mail: info@engitec.com


Website: www.engitec.com

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

New process to clean crude gas

Osaka Gas Engineering Co. Ltd., Japan, offers a desulphurization and decyanization system (Fumaks and Rhodacs process, respectively) for cleaning crude gas produced during the manufacture of coal gas, which contains hydrogen sulphide as well as hydrogen cyanide. In the Fumaks process, a solution of picric acid in sodium carbonate solution, sodium hydroxide solution or ammoniacal alkaline solution is circulated in the desulphurizing tower, where hydrogen sulphide is absorbed. The solution is then passed to a regeneration tower, where hydrogen sulphide is oxidized through catalytic reaction of picric acid. Sulphur is thus separated and removed. Regenerated liquid is recirculated to the desulphurizing tower. The use of premix nozzles enable effective contact between oxidation air and liquid in the compact regenerator at low air flow rate.


In the Rhodacs process, crude gas that contains hydrogen cyanide is scrubbed using sulphur-suspended alkaline solution to remove hydrogen cyanide in the form of thiocyanate, which is non-toxic.


Contact: Osaka Gas Engineering Co. Ltd., Overseas Sales Department, 4-2, Nakamichi 1-chome, Higashinariku, Osaka 537 0025, Japan. Tel: +81 (6) 9735 221; Fax: +81 (6) 9735 100.


Website: www.nett21.unep.or.jp

Ion scrubber

Shinko Pantec Co. Ltd., Japan, is offering an ion scrubber designed to provide the benefits of both high efficiency traits of an electrostatic precipitator and excellent qualities of a scrubber in order to remove dust and gases, thus lowering operating costs. Dust is removed effectively, with up to 99.9 per cent efficiency, almost irrespective of the size and properties of the particles. Benefits offered by the new system include:
  • Effective removal of sub-micron particles;
  • Noxious gases can also be removed via absorption of chemical reaction;
  • Energy savings;
  • FRP and resin are used, both of which offer excellent resistance to corrosion; and
  • Simultaneous removal of both
    dust and noxious gases serves to reduce the unit installation space.
Contact: Shinko Pantec Co. Ltd., 4-78, 1-chome, Wakihama-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 651 0072, Japan. Tel: +81 (78) 2328 134; Fax: +81 (78) 2328 067.


Website: www.nett21.unep.or.jp

Technology for low NOx combustion

Low NOx combustion technologies from Japans Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. include low NOx burner, combustion modification and in-furnace NOx reduction combustion. Low NOx type burners control the strength of the fuel mixing with the combustion air. The split flame type burner is off-stoichiometric firing type and is only adopted in firing fuel oils. Dual flow type low NOx burner is an aerodynamically mixing control type and is used for all fuels.


In combustion modification, the air staging and flue gas mixing technologies are adopted to reduce NOx emissions. On staged firing, a part of combustion air is branched from the stream to the burner firing unit, and sent to the furnace via overfire air ports, distributed down stream of the burner region. As such, fuel-rich firing is realized by air staging and NOx formation is reduced. Thermal-NOx originated by molecular nitrogen in the combustion air is significantly reduced by lowering flame temperature while fuel-NOx, generated by fuel-bound nitrogen, is insensitive to flame temperature.


Using in-furnace NOx reduction, NOx can be decomposed into molecular nitrogen, through the reaction of CHi + NO HCN NHi N2 in the firing region (CHi denotes the hydrocarbon species yielded during the process of fuel oxidation). The process uses interstage air pons and overfire air ports. The interstage air pons play a role accelerating both reactions for fuel oxidation and NOx decomposition, latter of which means conversion from the intermediate nitrogen species to N2.


Contact: Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., 2-2-1, Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Tel: +81 (3) 3244 5492; Fax: +81 (3) 3244 5499.


Website: www.nett21.unep.or.jp

New systems to control air pollution

A.H. Lundberg Systems Ltd., based in Canada, is offering Geoenergy E-Tube wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) to control fine particulate emissions. Incorporating a patented high-intensity discharge electrode, E-Tube solves sub-micron emission problems where other technologies fail. A key feature of this system is the proprietary discharge electrodes that concentrate a stable, high-intensity field between the electrodes and collection tubes. This configuration provides higher collection efficiencies than other designs, allowing a smaller E-Tube WESP to perform the task of a larger and more expensive wire frame unit. E-Tube WESP offers a versatile, engineered solution for a range of particulate collection applications. It can be configured with a variety of inlet configurations for pre-treatment of the gas stream, ensuring maximum efficiency in the smallest space. Heavy-duty modular construction ensures easy installation and long life.


Geoenergy GeoTherm regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) can easily be designed to accommodate any gas flow rate and composition to effectively eliminate VOCs. It includes a state-of-the-art emission control system for VOCs utilized in a wide array of industrial applications. The system is suitable for a variety of processes like converting, printing and coating, and is applicable in the pharmaceutical, fibreglass manufacturing and forest product industries also. The RTO is based on operation of paired heat recovery chambers connected to a central combustion chamber with only two moving parts. An automated control system and on-board diagnostics guarantee that the unit runs properly with minimal operator input.


The Geoenergy GeoCat catalytic oxidizer provides the printing and converting industries with a proven, low-temperature solution for VOC emission control. It combines unique engineered features with a simple, field-proven design for cost-effective and long-term reliable operation. Key features include:
  • Offers a choice of catalyst types, including pelletized and monolith;
  • The floating catalyst bed design with individual dampers allow optimum gas flow through the unit;
  • Total system enclosure allows the units to operate indoors or outdoors, and allows easy access to all components;
  • Efficient heat exchanger operation allows up to 85 per cent heat recovery;
  • A range of sizes for gas flows from 1,000 scfm up to 30,000 scfm;
  • Up to 99 per cent VOC destruction efficiency fulfils compliance with strict emission regulations; and
  • Turnkey installations are available with capture and process modifications.
Contact: A.H. Lundberg Systems Limited, No. 5480, Parkwood Way, Richmond B.C., V6V 2M4 Canada. Tel: +1 (604) 2735 204; Fax: +1 (604) 2737 231.


E-mail: sales@ahlundberg.com


Website: www.ahlundberg.com

ESP solution with fuzzy logic

Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services Group is offering an energy-saving solution for cleaning industrial gas emissions. High-voltage devices with power semiconductors boost the separation performance, in many cases making a mechanical supplement to the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) superfluous. A fuzzy logic-based control system automatically finds the lowest cost operating mode depending on the emission load.


PIC410F type high-voltage devices are also available for ESPs. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power semiconductor-based devices boost separation performance compared with traditional voltage conversion units with thyristor controllers. IGBT technology provides several benefits like higher corona discharge powers, a power factor of almost one, lower short circuit currents and more stable filter operation under fluctuating operating conditions. This boosts energy efficiency. The high-voltage devices are suitable for both static and pulsed operation, featuring a Profibus connection.


Modern firing systems place extra demands on filter systems, which must be operated at as low a cost as possible. This is made feasible by the fuzzy logic-based filter control Sifupic, which communicates with the high-voltage devices using noise-immune fibre-optic cables. Electrical operating behaviours are adjusted continuously and optimized due to process conditions. Several other functions are provided by Winpic optimization and diagnostic system, which communicates directly using Profibus to the high-voltage devices.


Contact: Dr. R. Schulze, Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services Group, Germany. Tel: +49 (9131) 744 544; Fax: +49 (9131) 725 074.


E-mail: rainer.schulze@siemens.com


Website: www.is.siemens.de

New material for dioxin capture

Gotaverken Miljo, Sweden, has developed a new system for capturing dioxins from incinerator exhausts. Designed with the cooperation of a German research centre, this technology combines the properties of polypropylene and active carbon. Though dioxin molecules are easily adsorbed by plastics they could be exuded again, especially at times of temperature changes. This phenomenon enabled researchers to come up with a polymer, which includes active carbon particles having strong affinity with dioxin. Dioxin molecules enter the polymer and migrate towards the carbon particles where they are trapped permanently. Moreover, the low-cost substance has a capacity of adsorption much greater than plastic alone. A looped design implies that a very large surface area is in contact with the gases, thereby achieving purification levels up to 90 per cent.


When placed in the washing reactor, Adiox does not result in significant loss of charge and can be installed in existing plants without modifying the gas cleansing procedure.


Contact: Gotaverken Miljo, Sweden. Tel: +46 (31) 501 960.


E-mail: richard.mattus@gmab.se


Website: www.eep.org

PUBLICATIONS

Basic Hazardous Waste Management

This third edition offers information on the latest trends in technologies, regulatory strategies and statutory developments in one convenient source. It expands on the material presented in the previous edition.


Contact: Air and Waste Management Association, 1 Gateway Centre, 3rd Floor, 420, Fort Duquesne Boulevard, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 1435, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (2) 2323 444; Fax: +41 (2) 2323 450.

E-mail: info@awma.org

Combustion and Incineration Processes

This book explores the operation and evaluation of incineration systems for hazardous and non-hazardous gaseous, liquid, sludge and solid wastes. It highlights the most recent advances in materials handling, waste processing, refractory and materials engineering, combustion technology and energy recovery to reduce and control toxins and pollutants in the environment.


Contact: Air and Waste Management Association, 1 Gateway Centre, 3rd Floor, 420, Fort Duquesne Boulevard, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 1435, Switzerland. Tel: +41 (2) 2323 444; Fax: +41 (2) 2323 450.

E-mail: info@awma.org

European Plastics Directory

This essential buyers guide allows users to source materials, semi- and finished products, machinery and ancillary equipment, processors and those offering consultancy and testing services. It also enables users to use this information to focus on marketing strategies.


Contact: Rapra Technology, Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (01939) 250 383; Fax: +44 (01939) 251 118.

E-mail: publications@rapra.net

Computer Simulated Plant Design for Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

This book links environmental science with computer technology. Building on the concepts introduced in the first volume of the Computer Generated Physical Properties, it discusses the use of computer simulation programs to solve problems in plant design before they occur. Design issues have been covered for both non-stationary and stationary sources of pollution, global warming, troposcopic ozone and stratospheric ozone.


Contact: Lewis Publishers Inc., 2000, Corporate Boulevard, NW Boca Raton, Florida 33431, United States of America.ica.


ASIAN AND PACIFIC CENTRE FOR TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

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